UMD PSYC 100 - Chapter 10: Development and Personality

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Chapter 10: Development and Personality Development Research MethodsFetal learning:- Many pregnant women report a fetal jerk or sudden kick after a door slams or a car backfires- Researchers have inserted a hydrophone into the uterus of a pregnant women and saw that the tones of the mothers voice was audible - Research has shown that heart rate slows when a mother is speaking, showing the fetusnot only recognizes the voice but is also calmed by it - Believed the womb isn’t completely dark- Fetuses show learning- DeCasper’s research: found that babies show preferenceo Babies prefer mother’s voice and books that were read to them in the womb as opposed to new sounds and new bookso Babies prefer to hear their mothers speaking in their native language rather thanin a foreign language - The fetus can listen, learn, and remember at some level, and likes the comfort and reassurance of the familiar Infant Perception & Cognition- Joseph Campos and Robert Amdy showed fear of heights is not innate for babies who have just learned to crawl, but once they have been crawling for a little a fear of heights is learned from a biological switch- Emotions = nonverbal language - Emotions are nonverbal communication of baby to parent and parent to babyo Campos showed that the emotion of the parent lead the baby to make a decision about crossing the “cliff”Lifelong Development- Cohort – a population of individuals born during the same historical period o Example: “baby boomers”: 1946-1964 - Confounding variables vs. attrition- Cross-sectional – includes people from at least two different cohorts and then comparesthemo Confounding factors – since the people come from different historical periods, they differ in historical differences they have experienced so it becomes difficult to decide if it is the difference in age or historical events exospore making the differences- Longitudinal – measure a cohort in one time period and then again years later in a different time period o Attrition – easy to lose people from original measurement due to death, little interest, etc.  So the second measurement might not be representative of the entire sampleInfant Determinism- Usually the recent past matters more than early childhood in terms of effect- The role early experience may play in shaping adult outcome is heavily dependent on subsequent experiences and condition, many of which cannot be predicted or control subsequent events such as parental divorce, depression, unemployment, etc. - Human beings are shaped more by present than by past circumstances - What causes a behavior to begin is not what keeps it going- Example: trace your current fear of poodles. You had a scary encounter with a poodle when you were little but that encounter was long ago and the poodle is long gone, you still have the fear because you avoid them. Your fear is due to avoidance not the encounterPiaget’s Stage Theory- Jean Piaget studied the cognitive development of children and proposed a theory of several stages they go through - Stage 1: Sensori-motor – birth – 2 yearso Differentiate self from objectso Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally (i.e. pulls a string to set mobile in action or shakes a rattle to make a noise)o Infants: Does not achieve object permanence; doesn’t realize that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense o Toddlers develop an idea of object permanence - Stage 2: Pre-operational – 2 – 7 yearso Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and wordso Thinking is still egocentric – has difficulty taking viewpoint of otherso Classifies objects by a single feature (i.e. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of color) Lacks ideas of conservation – doesn’t have a fully understanding of transformation o Juice experiment & coin experiment & graham crack experiment o Egocentrism- Stage 3: Concrete operational – 7 – 11 yearso Can think logically about objects and eventso Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9)o Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as sizeo Concerned with the physical world o Can differentiate between fat and skinny glass in juice experiment and still realize that they have the same amount of juice - Stage 4: Formal operational – 11 years and upo Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematicallyo Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and the ideological problems o Younger kids are not able to deductive reason, 11 years and up are able to deductive reasonKohlbergTheorized that children developed through 3 general levels of moral reasoning Pre-conventional Level (up to age 9)- Self-Focused Moralityo Morality is defined as obeying and avoiding negative consequences. Children in this stage see rules set, typically by parents as defining moral lawo That which satisfies the child’s needs is seen as good and moralo Even babies tend to gravitate towards good people Upwards of 80% of infants choose the helpful puppet in Yale experiments Conventional Level (age nine to adolescence)- Other-Focused Moralityo Children begin to understand what is expected of them by their parents, teachers, etc; Morality is seen as achieving these expectationso Fulfilling obligations as well as following expectations are seen as moral law for children in this stage Post-conventional Level (adulthood)- Higher Focused Moralityo As adults, we begin to understand that people have different opinions about morality and that rules and laws vary from group to group and culture to culture. Morality is seen as upholding the values of your group or culture.o Understanding your own personal beliefs allows adults to judge themselves and others based upon higher levels of morality. In this stage what is right and wrong is based upon the circumstances surrounding an action. Basics of morality are the foundation with independent thought playing an important roleAttachment Attachment theory (John Bowlby) – security of attachment is made, not born; it is a result of lived experience rather than a byproduct of in-born biological make up- Sensitive mother, or caregiving, fosters security in infants and young children - Infants establish secure attachments when caregivers, mothers, fathers, or even child-care workers, recognize


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UMD PSYC 100 - Chapter 10: Development and Personality

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