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Chapter 5 - Biological Foundations Label on a diagram of a neuron and describe the function of:1. Axon- D carries the cell’s impulse to the terminal2. Axon Hillock- C joins the soma and axon to collect the impulses before sending one down the cell 3. Dendrites- B receives impulses from other nerve cells 4. Schwann Cells- E surrounds some neurons to increase how efficiently it can carry an impulse 5. Soma- A contains the genetic instructions for the function of the cell 6. Synapse- neuro-chemicals released from the terminal buttons of one nerve cell must cross the cellmembrane and into the synapse before reaching the dendrites of another cell 7. Terminal- F spreads the cell’s impulse out to reach other neurons 8. Terminal Buttons- G links up to the dendrites of the next neuron in the chainDescribe the process a nerve cell goes through in order to send an impulse. Including a discussion of:- Pre-synaptic neurons- Delivering an impulse to another nerve- Post-synaptic neurons- Receiving an impulse from another nerve- Excitatory neurons- Its impulse increase the likelihood that the next neuron will send an impulse- Inhibitory neurons- Decreases the likelihood that the next neuron will send an impulse- Threshold- The level of stimulation needed to trigger an impulse- Absolute refractory periods- A time period during which it is impossible to trigger an impulse- Relative refractory periods- A time period during which it is more difficult to trigger an impulse (it must receive a larger amount of excitatory stimulation than what would normally be required to reach its threshold)Appropriate Sequence: Excitation, threshold, action potential, absolute refractory period, relative refractory periodDescribe the role of sodium ions and potassium ions in an action potentialsDistinguish the components and function of the nervous systems:1. Autonomic- Controls the smooth muscles of the internal organs and glands2. Central- Comprised of the brain and spinal cord3. Parasympathetic- Relaxes the body during times of rest and relaxation4. Peripheral- Comprised of autonomic and somatic systems5. Somatic- Comprised of sensory and motor neurons from the spinal cord to the rest of the body6. Sympathetic- Triggers the body’s fight-or-flight systems (ex. increased heart rate for muscle activity, dilated pupils for better vision)7. Spinal Cord- Controls the reflex arc to remove your hand from painExplain what happens in a reflex arc:Sensory information is processed at the level of the spinal cord resulting in action without involvement of the brain. For example, if a candle burns one’s fingers, the hand that receives the painful stimulus is rapidly removed from the candle with a jerking motion. At the same time, the brain is receiving information indicating that a painful event occurred in the hand. It is important to understand that although the brain may perceive the painful stimulus the reflexarc acts to retract the hand without direct input from the brain Label on a diagram (parts with an asterisk) and describe the function of:1. Amygdala- Center of fear and aggression responses2. Cerebellum*- Round structure in the back of the brain responsible for balance3. Cerebral Cortex*- The outer layer of the brain (covers the cerebrum and cerebellum)4. Cerebrum*- The general area of the brain that contains all of the structures responsible for more complex thought, intelligence, and behavior (Covers the uppermost part of the brain)5. Corpus callosum- Connects the two cerebral hemispheres so they can communicate with each other6. Frontal Lobe*- Controls voluntary body movements (Front of the brain)7. Hindbrain*- Controls basic life functions, like the beating of your heart, your breathing8. Hippocampus- Responsible for basic learning and memory 9. Hypothalamus- Regulates body temperature10. Left Hemisphere*- More involved in logical thought (Left hemisphere)11. Limbic system- The group of structures that controls emotions and memory12. Medulla oblongata*- Regulates heart rate, breathing, and blood flow (Located in hindbrain)13. Midbrain*- Making up the upper half of the brain stem, acts as a general filter for the rest of the brain and helps control focus and motivation14. Occipital Lobe*- Processes visual information (Back of the cerebral cortex) 15. Parietal Lobe*- The area of the brain that processes taste information (Above occipital lobe)16. Pons*-- A relay station for visual, auditory, and other sensory information (Above medulla oblongata)17. Reticular formation*- Controls sleep (Region running through the middle of the hindbrain)18. Right Hemisphere*- More involved in creativity and artistic thought (Right hemisphere)19. Temporal Lobe*- Processes auditory information, hearing and speech (Above the ears)20. Thalamus- Receives sensory information and relays it to the cortexDescribe what a homunculus depicts.< What does this tell us about the relative importance of some sensory information over other information?Body drawn with sizes that represent the amount of space on the somatosensory cortex. Some body parts need the most sensation. (Foot sensation leaks over to genitals- Leaking activation)Explain what happened to Mr. Gage, and what it taught us about brain function?Suffered with a spike through the head, primarily located in the frontal lobe, and lost all executivecontrolDescribe the ways in which psychologists go about determining whether a certain personality trait, like optimism, is at least partially determined by genetics?Describe what we would observe with the following:1. Frontal Lobe Damage- Trouble making decisions and regulating behavior2. Broca’s Aphasia- Trouble producing fluid speech3. Wernicke's Aphasia- Trouble producing meaningful speech4. Unilateral neglect- Ignoring half of what you see, right parietal lobe damage5. Prosopagnosia- Inability to recognize faceChapter 6 - Sensation & PerceptionSensation- occurs when some event, whether it is a sound, a light, or a touch, is detected by receptors in your body and an impulse is sent to the brainPerception- occurs when the brain receives the sensory information coming in from the body, organizes it, and interprets it Describe the difference between bottom-up processing and top-down processing 1. Bottom-up processing- refers to perception that is pieced together as sensory information coming in. Sound hitting one ear sooner than other 2. Top-down


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UMD PSYC 100 - Chapter 5 - Biological Foundations

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