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EXAM REVIEW #2General Theoretical Perspectives:- Define psychology- the study of behavior and thought through mental processes - Name and explain the five basic goals of psychology-1.describe- what is being observed2. Explain- what is going on?3.predict- what’s going to happen next?4.control- control everything that is taking place now5.improve- what is going to be changed next time?- Define the following theories and use each to explain any given behavior (e.g.,why do humans shave hair from their bodies? Why do some humans bow when meeting other humans? Why do humans apply makeup and scented liquid to their bodies?) o Sociobiological Theory- our thoughts and behavior are shaped by maximizing of patterns in biology and shape evolution (as babies we were brought up to wear and use different face washes to depict our self appearance, we eat fattier foods to make us more fat) o Sociocultural Theory- our thoughts and behavior our influenced around people around us, our culture and our ideas (we wear certain things to fit it and do things to influence others) o Learning Theory- our thoughts and behavior are shaped by positive and negative consequences (fear and aggression are learned)o Social Cognitive Theory- our thoughts and are behavior are shaped by our beliefs, attitudes and motivation (we choose to wear a certain brand because we know that brand works and is good for us) Research Methodology: - For each research method listed in Appendix A, provide the definition, and example, and explain the advantages and disadvantages of that method - Naturalistic Observation- measure people in their own natural settings, hid in the bathroom to see if boys wash their hands, its cheap and inexpensive however its hard to measure everything in a persons natural setting and it can be time consuming- Structured Observation-watch people do certain things and observe there behaviors, watching a married couple through a one way mirror complete a puzzle, easy to watch however doesn’t give all the right answers- Controlled experiment-the experimenter randomly assigns a group and manipulates one of the variables, people bob their head side to side or up and down- Longitudinal- a study over a long period of time, study firefighters for 12 years, easy to stick to one thing however people can drop out- Cross sectional-study people of different ages, study kids who are 11,13,15 and 17 and how they all interact, gives a wide variety or results however the kids can not all give the same results because there all different ages- Case study- study the same group of people in depth, study the college kids from 2011 and how they are doing now, people can want to drop out- Archival- a study that has already been studied, speeches from 2004, the information you want can not match up to what’s already been taken - Self report- an online survey, test or questionnaire, people answer questions based n cell phone use, fast and efficient how ever people can lie - Explain the difference between correlation and causation- correlation proves that 2 things relate to each other and causation proves that one thing results in another thing occurring- Positive correlation-both variables go up, the more sleep you get the better your grades are - Negative correlations- as one goes up one goes down, the more sleep you have the less anxious you will be - Independent- variable being manipulated for example what seat your in - Dependent variable- whets being measured, mood - Define the term external validity- the results of the experiment seem to be true and real to the population - Probability sampling- most people will sign up and be able to participate- Convenience sampling- the people being experimented on are easy to get and choose to volunteer for an experiment - Random assignment- getting a group from the population that is the on average equal in every way- Random sampling-a group from sample that represents the population as a whole o Provide an example of how a confounding variable might cause differences on the DV- depending on what’s being measured for example mood, if someone just took a test, was tired, didn’t eat or was in a fight that would greatly affect there moodo Explain how random assignment creates groups of participants that can be compared to each other without having to worry about these confoundingvariables-random assignment creates a group of people from the sample that is equal in every way so that reduces the confounding variablesBiological Functions:- Neurons- basic building blocks of all thought and behavior - Dendrites: receive impulses from other nerve cells- Soma: Contains the genetic information for the function of the neuron- Axon Hillock: joins the soma and axon to collect the impulses to send them- Axon: carries the cells impulse to terminal, length- Myelin Sheath: surrounds some neurons to increase how fast impulses are sent- Nodes of ranvier: space in between where the impulses jump- Terminal: spreads the cells impulse out to reach other neurons- Terminal buttons: links up the dendrites of the next neuron - Synapse: space in between the terminal buttons and dendrites to carry messages across to other neurons Action Potential: electrical impulse caused by the flow of negative and positive ions where the membranes are polarized exhibiting an unequal distribution of ions- Threshold stimulus: membrane stimulated enough so that sodium channels open,the minimum amount needed- Threshold Potential: if the membrane reached potential then the impulse is sent- All of none: an impulse cant partially fire its all or none principle- Sodium ions: the inside- Potassium ions: the outside- Absolute Refractory Period: limit to neuron firing, conducting an impulse because the second stimulus wont produce an action stimulus, break- Relative Refractory Period: another action potential can be produced if the threshold is greater than before- Autonomic Nervous System: controls the smooth muscles of the internal organs and glands- Central NS: comprised of the brain and spinal cord- Hind Brain: controls basic life functions, like the beating of your heart and your breathing- Parasympathetic: part of PNS, relaxes body during times of rest and relaxation- Peripheral NS: comprised autonomic and somatic systems- Somatic NS: comprised of sensory and motor neurons from the spinal cord to the rest of the body- Spinal cord: controls the reflex arc to remove your hand from a painful stimulus- Sympathetic: part of


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UMD PSYC 100 - EXAM REVIEW #2

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