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General Theoretical Perspectives:Define psychology- the study of behavior and thought through mental processes - Define the following theories and use each to explain any given behavior (e.g.,why do humans shave hair from their bodies? Why do some humans bow when meeting other humans? Why do humans apply makeup and scented liquid to their bodies?) o Sociobiological Theory- our thoughts and behavior are shaped by maximizing of patterns in biology and shape evolution (as babies we were brought up to wear and use different face washes to depict our self appearance, we eat fattier foods to make us more fat) o Sociocultural Theory- our thoughts and behavior our influenced around people around us, our culture and our ideas (we wear certain things to fit it and do things to influence others) o Learning Theory- our thoughts and behavior are shaped by positive and negative consequences (fear and aggression are learned)o Social Cognitive Theory- our thoughts and are behavior are shaped by our beliefs, attitudes and motivation (we choose to wear a certain brand because we know that brand works and is good for us) Research Methodology: - For each research method listed in Appendix A, provide the definition, and example, and explain the advantages and disadvantages of that method - Naturalistic Observation- measure people in their own natural settings, hid in the bathroom to see if boys wash their hands, its cheap and inexpensive however its hard to measure everything in a persons natural setting and it can be time consuming- Structured Observation-watch people do certain things and observe there behaviors, watching a married couple through a one way mirror complete a puzzle, easy to watch however doesn’t give all the right answers- Controlled experiment-the experimenter randomly assigns a group and manipulates one of the variables, people bob their head side to side or up and down- Longitudinal- a study over a long period of time, study firefighters for 12 years, easy to stick to one thing however people can drop out- Cross sectional-study people of different ages, study kids who are 11,13,15 and 17 and how they all interact, gives a wide variety or results however the kids can not all give the same results because there all different ages- Case study- study the same group of people in depth, study the college kids from 2011 and how they are doing now, people can want to drop out- Archival- a study that has already been studied, speeches from 2004, the information you want can not match up to what’s already been taken - Self report- an online survey, test or questionnaire, people answer questions based n cell phone use, fast and efficient how ever people can lie - Explain the difference between correlation and causation- correlation proves that 2 things relate to each other and causation proves that one thing results in another thing occurring- Positive correlation-both variables go up, the more sleep you get the better your grades are - Negative correlations- as one goes up one goes down, the more sleep you have the less anxious you will be - Independent- variable being manipulated for example what seat your in - Dependent variable- whets being measured, mood - Define the term external validity- the results of the experiment seem to be true and real to the population - Probability sampling- most people will sign up and be able to participate- Convenience sampling- the people being experimented on are easy to get and choose to volunteer for an experiment - Random assignment- getting a group from the population that is the on average equal in every way- Random sampling-a group from sample that represents the population as a wholeBehavioral Psychology:- Define the term stimulus- part of an experiment that is used to prove something - Define classical conditioning- basic form of learning, 2 things occur at the same time - Describe Pavlov’s experiment- trained his dog to salivate at the sound of the bellwhen food was coming - Use an example, like Watson’s study with Little Albert or the use of bees to detect explosives, to define the acronyms in a classically-conditioned association o NS- natural stimulus has no prior effect on the animal or person, the white furry rat had no effect to baby Alberto UCS – what triggers a response, the scream when seeing the rato UCR- what is your reaction to what was triggered, baby Albert began to cryo CS- after learning, Albert now screams because of the NS o CR-without even having the USC present whenever Albert sees something white and furry he will be begin to cry - Define stimulus generalization- generalize between two similar stimuli for example the sounds of horns, no matter what car it is if a car is honking that refersto something not good - Stimulus discrimination- discriminate between 2 stimuli that are related to each other, stop lights are red and green and you discriminate between the two differentcolors - Counter-conditioning- giving a desirable characteristic to an aversive stimulus, making the UCS the NS - Systematic desensitization- slowly step by step habituating the aversive stimulusat each level until the CR and the CS are erased - Provide clear examples of how behavior can be altered by: - Positive reinforcement- encouraging a desired outcome of a behavior by rewarding it, if a person does well on their test they will receive candy - Positive punishment- encouraging a desired outcome of a behavior by not rewarding the behavior, slapping a kid for saying a curse word or putting soap in their mouth, calling unwanted attention to someone until they pay attention- Negative reinforcement- discouraging a trait until the undesired behavior stops, nagging someone until they clean there room and when they get annoyed they will stop- Negative punishment- discouraging a behavior by removing a reward, late for curfew car gets taken away - Primary reinforces- getting candy for doing good - Secondary reinforces- clapping for someone who just gave a good speech- Primary Punisher- slapping someone for cursing - Define shaping and explain how you would use the concept to train a cat to use a toilet instead of a litter box – the concept of shaping refers to teaching a desired behavior, if you want to teach your cat you will place the liter box on top of the toilet than slowly remove liter from the box and when there is a little left, put a whole in the litter box than eventually there wont be a box - Provide a couple original examples


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UMD PSYC 100 - General Theoretical Perspectives

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