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1/23Sumerian and greek bilinguals unlikelyPerseus kills medusa (look at her, turn to stone)· Uses mirror shield, flying shoesMyth is group of stories around a central figureAnthromorphism compares growth of plants from clouds to human reproductionFolk tales have happy endings whereas myths don’t always 1/28Powell: Chapter 4 Define cosmogony = “world” + “origin” Define theogony = “gods” + “origin” (birth of gods) In what tradition are these the same? In what tradition are they different?????? What is the principal mythological account of the of creation of the world? Who wrote it? When?Theogony; Hesiod; BC 750-700 BC List three ways in which Hesiod organized traditional stories about the origins of the world and the gods.1. Spatial: space between people2. Genealogy who married who, children3. Organization of theme: Cronus & Zeus = sea, Ocean & Nereus = sky, etcDuplicate stories told together What does Chaos mean in Greek? =Gape, yawn (to open mouth), chasm, open space What were the next three divinities to appear, after Chaos? Where do they end up, spatially, in relation to one another? Gaea, eros, and tartarus.Olympus/top, gaea/middle, tartarus/bottom Who does Gaea produce with Uranus? (Name three basic categories of divinity.) 12 (6 male, 6 female) titans, 3 Cyclopes, 3 hecatonchires Gaea (earth) bore Uranus (sky) asexuallyCronus and rhea (2 titans) gave birth to the Olympians Cronus eats all his kids out of fear but Rhea hides Zeus (the youngest)He is fed something that makes him vomit up all his kids plus the rock that Rhea fed him thatwas to replace Zeus What do the Cyclopes look like? 1 eye monsterWhat do the Hecatonchires look like? 100 hands, 50 heads monster Name two important roles the Titans played in Hesiod’s version of the origins of the world.To show why Zeus is so important, had to go to the originsTitans fighting shaped the world Who are descended from Gaea and Pontus? (Name two gods/demigods and three monsters.)Nereus ->Nereids -> achillesCeto (sea monster) -> gorgons , including medusa -> pegasusThaumus->harpies SphinxGorgon: woman with snake hairCerberus: dog with three headsChimera: lion with a snake’s tail and a goat’s head on its back Why does Eros precede the other deities? What does he represent?He drives the complex genealogies because he’s the source of idea that sexual beings together create offspringSexual love and attraction How is Aphrodite born? What does she represent?She is born when Cronus’ genitals falls into the sea or from Dione and Zeus. Universal force of irresistible and destructive sexual desire Who are Hyperion’s children (sun-god, titan)? Sun/Helius, Selene/moon, Eos/dawn What is the Enuma Elish? How do events in it relate to those in Hesiod?Tiamat (saltwater) gave birth to gods but also a bunch of monsters (like Gaea) and Marduk (4 eyed, 4 ears handsome warrior) kills them (like Zeus) Who are the Erinyes and what role do they have in myth? They are the “furies.” Female spirits who haunts those who shed kindred blood and drives them mad. (Children born from when Cronus cut off Uranus’ genitals and the blood drops landed on Gaea—represents evilness towards one’s family) Give two examples of succession stories from Hesiod.zeus, cronus, uranusName two things that are similar in these stories.A woman gave birth to a lot of monsters, younger generation fighting the older generation/kid overthrowing parent Name one thing that is different.method of killing, zeus isnt overthrown What is the difference between Hesiod’s titanomachy (battle of titans) and his giantomachy (battle of giants)? Who is Typhoeus? Why did Zeus need to fight him?Typhoeus is 100 snakes on his headFight snakes to bring order; snakes = chaos1Similar to Marduk killing Tiamat (portrayed as snake in art)Gaea sent him to kill zeus out of vengeance Name three other heroes who fight snake-like monsters in Greek myth.Apollo, Zeus, HerculesName one similarity between the titanomachy and the battle with Typhoeus. How is the story of Typhoeus etiological? Who is Metis and what does she represent? How does Zeus appropriate her special skill?ClevernessEats her so that she can’t bore the child that will overthrow him Who is descended from Metis and Zeus? How does her birth put an end to the cycle of succession myths Hesiod tells?AthenaBecause Zeus bore her asexually and also by eating Metis, the child that would overthrow Zeus couldn’t be born. Gaea and Uranus where in constantly interlocked in a sexual embrace so the kids could never go out. So cronus cuts off his father’s genitals so that they can go out into the world and then earth and sky is permanently separated. 1/30Powell: Chapter 5 Who did most ancient Greeks believe was the creator of humankind? What was he? From what materials did he make humans? According to Ovid, Prometheus created humans from mud. What is the first trick Prometheus plays on Zeus (at Mecone/Sicyon)? How is the story of thistrick etiological? Asks Zeus to choose between Hagus (stomach) and something like bacon wrapped around a bone. But says that Prometheus must have made unequal. Still chooses bacon. Etiological because has to do with burning down to bones for the gods. What are the consequences of this trick? Humans lose fire How does Prometheus respond to these consequences (describe, briefly, the second trick he plays on Zeus)? He hides fire in a fennel and gives it back to humans What other benefits, in addition to the one in question (5), did Prometheus confer on humans, according to Aeschylus? Writing, astronomy, fire, housing, math, agriculture, ships, medicine What was the consequence, for Prometheus, of deceiving Zeus twice? Who eventually rescues him? He is chained to a rock. Heracles eventually rescues him. What does the name Prometheus mean? What does the name Epimetheus mean?Before thoughtAfter thought What punishment does Zeus give humans for the benefits they received from Prometheus? What author tells this story?Pandora. Told by Hesiod What does the name Pandora mean? What do the gods give to Pandora?“All gifts” They give her a pretty face, beautiful clothes, morals of a thief, soul of a bitch What does Pandora give to humans? A box/jar filled with evil (suffering, diseases, sadness) Name three other women who destroy men in Greek myth.Artemis GaeaWhy does Hesiod call women a “ruinous race and tribe”? How does Pandora’s jar represent all women, in

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UIUC CLCV 115 - Powell: Chapter 4

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