UNO URBN 1000 - Chapter 12_Housing_ History and Institutional Racism.pptx (33 pages)

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Chapter 12_Housing_ History and Institutional Racism.pptx



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Chapter 12_Housing_ History and Institutional Racism.pptx

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institutional racism, economy, city planning: products of


Pages:
33
School:
University of New Orleans
Course:
Urbn 1000 - Introduction to Cities
Unformatted text preview:

URBN 1000 Introduction to Cities Part 4 Urban Issues Housing and Planning Class Outline Housing 101 Housing and income Federal Housing Acts of 1930s Public housing Housing and racism Housing categories Owner occupied Emphasis on homeownership National bias towards ownership Tax incentives towards ownership Houses condos townhouses Rental year lease month to month lease Publicly owned housing or public housing Assisted living senior housing Group homes institutions http www theadvocate com new orleans news business article d 2697796 6860 11e6 98ab 5bcccc227433 html sr source lift amplif y NOLA Real Estate How does housing reflect income Cost of house itself depends on location and size 2 3 of all householders are homeowners 1 3 are renters Access to goods and services such as grocery stores hospitals libraries entertainment green spaces Housing as asset biggest indicator of wealth in the U S is owning a house homeownership 75 of whites own homes 46 for blacks 49 for Hispanics Intergenerational transfer of wealth Investment renovations selling it during an economic boom Funding Public Education Locally property taxes fund public schools 1991 range 3000 15000 student Unlike affluent communities poorer urban neighborhoods lack the tax base to provide adequate per student expenditures even with additional state aid Detroit 2010 closed 25 of its 172 public schools due to lack of funding Social stratification Social stratification the ranking of people into a social hierarchy based upon their access to resources in society Income the earnings of a family eg 45 000 yr Wealth income lifestyle assets US has the most unequal distribution of wealth in the West Wealth marketable assets real estate property stocks cars boats investments etc biggest indicator of wealth home ownership Housing crisis of 2007 2012 10 million foreclosures 2007 2010 Poverty poverty line for a family of 4 in U S in 2010 22 314 Housing affordability Cost burdened Paying 30 of your income for housing is cost burdened according to the US Department of Housing and Urban Development aka HUD But 30 of 1000 is not equal to 30 of 5000 A family with one full time wage earner earning minimum wage cannot find an affordable 2 bedroom apartment anywhere in the U S Housing cost burdened in New Orleans Number ofMedian Annual Affordable rent Workers Earnings utilities Food preparation and serving related occupations Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 20 829 17 608 440 11 217 19 471 487 Personal care and service occupations 11 524 19 585 490 Healthcare support occupations Fire fighting and prevention and other protective service workers including supervisors Material moving workers Office and administrative support occupations Motor vehicle operators Community and social services occupations 7 795 22 864 572 5 131 27 654 691 5 578 27 808 695 54 474 28 859 721 8 793 31 150 779 6 873 34 837 871 Federal Housing Policies 101 1930s Great Depression and federal government initiatives to stimulate the economy During the Depression residential construction dropped by 90 Buying a house detached single family suburban house Private property and rights of homeowners defining citizenship Guaranteed low interest long term mortgages GI loans allowed working and middle class to afford suburbia Federal Housing Policies 101 Housing Act of 1934 created the FHA Federal Housing Administration to ensure home loans Housing Act of 1937 established the U S Housing Authority GI Bill 1944 guaranteed VA loans to vets returning from war slum clearance program to demolish substandard tenements and then build standard low rise public housing in its place Banks and lenders decided who gets loans and government acted to insure the banks against loss if the buyer defaulted Housing Act 1949 public housing downtown urban renewal eminent domain slum clearance Negro Removal Housing and Racism Exclusionary zoning practices explicitly racist federal policies Redlining Blockbusting Racial steering Racial Covenants Redlining Redlining the process of delineating on maps through the use of red lines areas where banks would not provide loans and mortgages Minority inner city neighborhoods deemed ineligible for long term mortgages because banks would not authorize loans for redlined areas Led to decay of minority inner city neighborhoods maps based on assumptions about race not actual ability to meet the satisfied requirements for the loans Abolished in 1968 Fair Housing Act Redlining Grading Metrics How to get a loan 1936 Philadelphia but other cities too A most desirable B still desirable C declining D risky redlined Blockbusting Blockbusting business practice of U S real estate agents and building developers designed to encourage white property owners through perceived fear to sell their houses at a loss for profit by insinuating that racial minorities were moving into their previously racially segregated neighborhood thus depressing real estate property values Was federally endorsed 1940s 1970s and ended by the 1980s Steering Steering real estate agents steer blacks or another racial minority to predominantly black neighborhoods and vice versa Failing on the basis of race to show or inform potential home buyers homes that meet their desires and specifications thus perpetuating racial residential segregation In certain documented cases even when the socioeconomic status is held constant Racial Covenants Racial covenants primary intent was to keep white neighborhoods white and for real estate developers to protect subdivisions A deed covenant contract that forbid the buyer of a house from reselling leasing or transferring property to persons of a certain race ethnicity or religion as dictated by the house deed at any point in the future in order to maintain homogeneity i e to keep investment and high property values 1920s 1960s Racially restrictive covenants Have Things Changed Today Affordability Redeveloping public housing public housing was originally marketed to white families who were in transition to middle class It was not until the 1960s that public housing became the projects or the ghetto with poor blacks heavily concentrated Controversial national trend to reduce public housing even though it represents only 1 5 of the nation s housing stock Today we are redeveloping public housing but not at a 1 1 ratio People being displaced from homes and communities Idea that fixing environment fixes social problems behavior Public Housing Public


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