UNO URBN 1000 - Chapter 6_The Suburbs.pptx (49 pages)

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Chapter 6_The Suburbs.pptx



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Chapter 6_The Suburbs.pptx

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classism reflected in where who lives and what color they are and why. City designs and schools of thought


Pages:
49
School:
University of New Orleans
Course:
Urbn 1000 - Introduction to Cities
Unformatted text preview:

URBN 1000 Introduction to Cities Part 2 U S Cities Historical and Modern Perspectives Class Outline Suburbs History and Myths Malls Types of suburbs Sprawl Exurbs Gated Communities Edge Cities Intro to suburban studies Today 55 of Americans are suburban majority since 1970 In the 51 largest metro areas 1 000 000 70 of residents are suburban Since 2010 suburbs are now home to the largest and fastest growing poor population in the U S not the inner city While suburbs continue to dramatically change both for good and bad many of our images of suburbia remain set in the myths of the past Suburbs like cities go through cycles of growth and decline But for whatever reason we have a one dimensional understanding of suburbia Diversity and Suburbs Today suburbs no longer fit the 1950s definition of white middle class two car garage wife homemaker definition Racial class ethnic and religious diversity has dramatically increased in the suburbs while whites are now moving back into the city reversing decades of white flight trends On avergage suburbs are now 35 racial minorities 78 of whites in the 100 largest metro areas live in suburbs 51 of blacks 59 of Hispanics 62 of Asians Myth of Suburbia In 2015 our image of the suburbs has not caught up with reality and suburban myths of the 1950s refuse to die No longer just your Jefferson Parish suburbs Today we have Affluent commuter suburbs Working class suburbs Condominium suburbs Industrial park suburbs But Old Metairie has always still is and most likely always will be a suburb reserved for the upper class Wealthy suburbs appear to be the exception to the rule of the cycles of growth and decline of cities and suburbs Suburbs Historical Eras All eras of suburbia were not possible without advances in transportation Era 1 The 1800s emergence of suburbs due to railroads Era 2 Electric Streetcar Era 1890 1920 Era 3 Automobile Suburbs and WWII 1920 1950 Era 4 Post WWII Mass Suburbanization 1950 1990 Era 5 Metropolitan and Suburban Sprawl 1990 2015 1800s suburbs Pre Civil War upper class lived downtown Peripheries of cities were viewed as poor shantytowns for the lower classes and marginal of society Oxford English Dictionary 1800s definition of suburb a place of inferior debased and especially licentious habits of life London prostitution houses moved to suburbs whores labelled suburban sinners and it was an insult to be called suburbanite Post Civil War 1880 Suburbs reserved for the upper class elites expensive railroad commuter suburbs that provided an idealized rural refuge from the chaos of the city Class segregation b w city and suburb 1800s suburbs Roxbury Boston Electric Streetcar Era 1890 1920 Reserved for the upper class but first waves of middle class also began to move outward from the chaotic city 2nd source of suburban addition annexation Garden District NOLA originally laid out in 1832 for wealthy Americans who wanted socio spatial separation from French residents of the Quarter Treme and Marigny Carrollton New Orleans annexed to NOLA 1874 St Charles Avenue New Orleans oldest continuously operating streetcar network in the world September 1835 opening steam locomotives and horse cars February 1893 electric streetcars 1904 Streetcar map New Orleans Garden District New Orleans Automobile Suburbs 1920 1950 Car registrations jumped from 2 5 million in 1915 to 26 5 million in 1930 Henry Ford s mass produced Model T car made the automobile available to the middle class Made fringe land ripe for development no longer restricted by either railroads or streetcars to move outward Segregation by income occupation religion and ethnicity Majority of suburbs pre WWII were not grand estates but rather were modest bungalows Lakeview and Gentilly Terrace Gentilly Terrace New Orleans Lakeview New Orleans craft bungalows Mass Suburbanization 1950 1990 Levvittowns 720 sqft house 6 900 10 down payment Metairie West Bank Mass Produced Suburbia Metairie Kenner Westbank Single story houses with garage separated residential from commercial land use Baby Boomers born b w 1946 and 1964 76 000 000 children Reserved for middle class whites fleeing the city white flight Guaranteed mortgages and loans to white middle class only Federal government subsidized suburban development Ranch style housing 1000 2000 sq feet Rise of Catholic schools and private parochial eduction 80 opened post 1960 in NOLA metro area Levvittown USA Levvittown Levvittown Levvittown The American Dream Malling of America The American shopping mall became hugely popular starting in the late 1950s and continuing well into the 1980s From Canal Street to Lakeside Oakwood and Esplanade Malls Today 50 000 shopping malls https www youtube com watch v n3 3OkxIoiE http video anyclip com movies fast times at ridgemont high o pening credits Mall of America in Bloomington Minnesota 4 2 million sq ft 520 stores 14 movie screens 46 eateries 7 acre indoor amusement park roller coaster aquarium world s largest shark collection its own zip code police doctors and a public school for its 12 000 employees Lakeside Mall Metairie 1960 Suburban Malls Canal Street NOLA 1976 Shopping Downtown NOLA Dead Malls Dead Malls Lake Forest Mall New Orleans East Dead Malls Dead Malls Suburbia Suburban supermarkets Schwegmann s New Orleans Baby Boomers Suburbia Suburbia https www youtube com watch v wT A9PFOY18 https www youtube com watch v DSLC0JsDpV8 https www youtube com watch v XMqwSTe5rvo https www youtube com watch v WJUVPoCP78 Sprawl 1990s to today Sprawl spread out low density residential development beyond the edge of services and employment Separates people from where they live from where they work shop and it relies heavily on automobiles Inefficient and wasteful of natural resources vast homogenous panorama Represents the ideal lifestyle the American Dream Urban economics cheap land in the outskirts Phoenix Arizona Atlanta Georgia Consequences of sprawl Increased dependence on cars no longer walkable higher fuel costs and gas dependency not eco friendly Traffic congestion and long commutes greenhouse gases Disproportionately affects the poor disabled and elderly Environmental damage cutting down nature pollution lack of water eg Phoenix and watering lawns wetlands destroyed Las Vegas paying resident 1 50 sq ft of lawn ripped out to conserve water Exurbs Exurbs new residential areas built on the metropolitan fringe Small towns that become new suburbs to new cities Even farther than suburbs urbane seekers of the


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