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UT Arlington BIOL 2457 - Glandular Epithlieum

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BIOL 2457 1st Edition Lecture 9Outline of Last Lecture I. The Tissue Level of Organization Outline of Current LectureI. Glandular Epithelium II. Glandular Epithelium: Endocrine Glandsa. Secretions, called hormones, diffuse directly into the bloodstreamb. Function in maintaining homeostasisc. Examples include thyroid glandIII. Glandular Epithelium: Exocrine Glandsa. Secrete products into ducts that empty onto the surfaces of epitheliumb. Skin surface or lumen of a hollow organc. Secretions of the exocrine gland include mucus, sweat, oil, earwax, saliva, and digestive enzymesd. Examples of glands include sudoriferous (sweat) glandsIV. Structural Classification of Exocrine Glandsa. Multicellular glands are categorized structurally according to two criteria:b. Ducts are branched or unbranchedV. Simple gland duct does not branchVI. Compound gland duct branchesa. Shape of the secretory portion of the glandVII. Tubular glands have tubular secretory partsVIII. Acinar glands have rounded secretory partsIX. Tubuloacinar glands have both tubular and rounded secretory partsX. Functional Classification of Exocrine Glandsa. Based on how the product is secretedXI. Merocrine a. Secretion by exocytosisXII. Apocrinea. Secretion is portion of gland that has pinched offXIII. Holocrinea. Cell dies and becomes the secretory productb. Cell division replaces the lost cellXIV. Connective Tissuea. Most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the bodyb. Numerous functionsc. Binds tissues togetherd. Supports and strengthen tissuee. Protects and insulates internal organsf. Compartmentalize and transportg. Energy reserves and immune responsesXV. Extracellular Matrix of Connective TissueXVI. Extracellular matrix is the material located between the cellsa. Consists of protein fibers and ground substanceb. Connective tissue is highly vascularc. Supplied with nervesd. Exception is cartilage and tendon. Both have little or no blood supply and no nervesXVII. Connective Tissue Cellsa. Fibroblasts aa. Secrete fibers and components of ground substanceb. Adipocytes (fat cells) bb. Store triglycerides (fat)c. Mast cells cc. Produce histamined. White blood cells dd.Immune responsee. Neutrophils and Eosinophils ee. Macrophagesf. Engulf bacteria and cellular debris by phagocytosis ff. Plasma cells fff. Secrete antibodiesXVIII. Connective Tissue Extracellular MatrixXIX. Ground substancea. Between cells and fibersb. Fluid, semifluid, gelatinous, or calcifiedc. Functions to support and bind cells, store water, and allow exchange between blood and cellsd. Complex combination of proteins and polysaccharidesXX. Fibersa. Collagen fibersb. Elastic fibersc. Reticular fibers XXI. Classification of Connective TissuesXXII. Embryonic connective tissuea. Mesenchyme and mucous connective tissueXXIII. Mature connective tissuea. Loose connective tissueXXIV. Areolar, adipose, and reticulara. Dense connective tissueXXV. Dense regular, dense irregular, and elastica. CartilageXXVI. Hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilagea. Bone tissueb. Liquid connective tissueXXVII. Blood and lymphXXVIII.Embryonic Connective TissueXXIX. Mesenchymea. Gives rise to all other connective tissuesXXX. Mucous (Wharton’w Jelly)b. Found in umbilical cord of the fetus XXI. Loose Connective Tissue: Areolar Connective Tissuea. Most widely distributed in the bodyb. Contains several types of cells and all three fiber


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