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UT Arlington BIOL 2457 - Chapter 4: The tissue level of organization

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BIOL 2457 1st Edition Lecture 8Outline of Last Lecture I. The Cytoplasm Outline of Current LectureI. The Tissue Level of Organization II. Tissuesa. A group of cells with a common embryonic origin that function together to carry out specialized activitiesb. Includes various types ranging from hard (bone) to semisolid (fat) to liquid (blood)c. Histology is the science that deals with the study of tissues.d. Pathologists specialize in laboratory studies of cells and tissues for diagnosesIII. Types of Tissuesa. Epitheliali. Covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs, body cavities, ducts, and forms glandsb. Connectivei. Protects, supports, and binds organsii. Stores energy as fat, provides immunityc. Musculari. Generates the physical force needed to make body structures move and generate body heatd. Nervousi. Detects changes in body and responds by generating nerve impulsesIV. Development of Tissuesa. Epithelial tissues develop from all three germ layersb. All connective tissue and most muscle tissues derive from mesodermc. Nervous tissue develops from ectodermV. Cell Junctions a. 5 most common types:i. Tight junctionsii. Adherens junctionsiii. Desmosomesiv. Hemidesmosomesv. Gap junctionsVI. Tight Junctionsa. Fuse cells togetherb. Seal off passageways between adjacent cellsVII. Adherens Junctionsa. Dense layer of proteins called plaqueb. Resist separation of cells during contractile activitiesc. Located inside of the plasma membrane attached to both membrane proteins and microfilaments of the cytoskeletond. Transmembrane glycoproteins called cadherinsinsert into the plaque and join cellse. In epithelial cells, adhesion belts encircle the cellVIII. Desmosomes a. Contain plaque and cadherins that extends into the intercellular space to attach adjacent cells togetherIX. Hemidesmosomesa. Resemble half of a desmosomeX. Gap Junctionsa. Connect neighboring cells via tiny fluid-filled tunnels called connexonsXI. Epithelial Tissuesa. Epithelial tissue consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in either single or multiple layersb. 3 major functions:-Selective barrier that regulates the movement of materials in and out of the body -Secretory surfaces that release products onto the free surface-Protective surfaces against the environmentXII. General Features of Epithelial Tissues a. Surfaces of epithelial cells differ in structure and have specialized functionsb. Basement membranec. Closer to and secreted by the epithelial cellsd. Contains laminin, collagen, glycoproteins, and proteoglycanse. Closer to the underlying connective tissuef. Contains collagen secreted by the connective tissue cellsXIII. Covering and Lining Epithelium a. Normally classified according to:b. Arrangement of cells into layersc. Shapes of cellsd. Single layer of cells that function in diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secretion, or absorptione. Appears to have multiple layers because cell nuclei at different levelsf. All cells do not reach the apical surfaceg. Two or more layers of cells that protect underlying tissues in areas of wear and


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