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UB BIO 201 - RNA and Cells

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Econ 101 1st Edition Lecture 7 Outline of Last Lecture I. Lipids ContinuedA. Fatty Acids/Trans FatB. TriglyceridesC. PhospholipidsD. SteroidsII. Nucleic AcidsA. The Central DogmaB. Discover of DNAC. DNA vs. RNAD. Discovery of DNA StructureE. PolymerizationOutline of Current Lecture I. Nucleic Acids: RNAA. RNA typesB. StructureII. Cell TheoryIII. BacteriaA. Gram+ vs. Gram-IV. EukaryotesA. Plant, Fungi, and ProtistsB. The OrganellesC. Origin of Eukaryotes D. Endosymbiosis: Mitochondria, and ChloroplastsCurrent LectureThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.I. Nucleic Acids: RNA- RNA is the intermediate phase of the Central DogmaA. RNA Types:-mRNA- The messenger RNA, this is what we think of when we think of RNA. This is the intermediate phase that gets translated to a protein.-tRNA- The transfer RNA, this brings amino acids to growing polypeptides. -rRNA- The ribosome RNA, this makes up 50% of ribosome. rRNA catalyzes the polymerization of polypeptides. B. Structure-RNA has a backbone, with a 5’ to 3’ end. 3’ can add new nucleotides. -Polymer of ribonucleotides (sugar: ribose; bases A, C, G, U. -Compared to DNA, RNA is known as single stranded, it exists as a single molecule.-RNA molecules have extensive intramolecular base pairings, resulting in extensive secondary structures.-There are different tRNA’s for each amino acid. tRNA has a general cloverleaf structure, a secondary base and tertiary structure. -In general, rRNA’s have a larger structure than tRNA. -Ribozymes- RNA molecules that catalyze the peptide bond formation. This is a part in the whole ribosome. -RNA and DNA both have a 3D structure that is important for function. -RNA has an A-form helix, the helix is single and is more tightly bound than the B-form DNA. -A-form RNA and B-form DNA, are Right handed but the Z-form DNA is a rare occurrence of a Left handed helix. II. Cell Theory- NO EXCEPTIONS! Made up of 3 terms1. All living organisms are made up of cells.2. The cell is the basic structural unit of life3. All cells come form pre-existing cells-Cells do not arise spontaneously, no life is less thana single cell. -Oxygen in the atmosphere makes it hard for cells to evolve, therefore we are made from reproduction.III. Bacteria- The first domain of the tree of life. Characterized as a prokaryote with archaea.-Contain plasma membrane and cell wall-No membrane bound organelles-Classified as Gram+ or Gram--Cyanobacteria contain photosynthetic apparatus on infoldings of the plasma membrane. This could be what formed into chloroplasts.-Look like Archaea, but archaea live in extreme environments (both have no nucleus, and similar cell wall)-Bacteria are very small, typically 1-2um-Bacteria often contain a flagella, completely different than eukaryotic flagella found on sperm.A. Gram+ vs. Gram--Gram+ stains blue when treated with a crystal violet stain. This is because the cell wall is thick and absorbs the stain. The cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan (carbohydrate and protein mix). Peptidoglycan allows for structural support and protection from the outside.-Gram- stain pink from the crystal violet stain. This indicates that the cell wall is thin, and there is only a very thin layer of peptidoglycan. As a substitute, Gram- bacteria have a double cell membrane, which protects the cell even more than the peptidoglycan. -The double membrane around Gram- is so strong, that these bacterias are hard to treat. IV. Eukarya-Chareacteristic-Loss of peptidoglycan-loss of structural support, gain membrane fluidity-Gain of cytoskeleton-improved structural support-Membrane-bound organelles-segregation of function-Increased cell size-Improved mobility (allows neurons to reach from brain to toes)A. Plants, Fungi, and Protists -Vacuoles-Allow for water retention (plants, fungi, and protists) -Chloroplasts-Ability to use energy from the environment and turn it into sugar (plants, protists)-Cell walls- made of chitin, help structure and water retention (plants, fungi, protists)B. The Organelles-Double membrane- Nucleus, mitochondria&chloroplasts -Single membraine- Organelles of endomembrane system, peroxisomes and glyoxysomes, vacuolesC. Origin of Eukaryotes- absorb nutrients and excrete toxins better -Loss of peptidoglycan cell wall -Infolding of plasma membrane primitive endoplasmic reticulum -Primitive E.R surrounds DNA chromosomes forming nucleus with double membraneD. Endosymbiosis-Mitochondria-(all eukaryotes) 1. Anaerobic eukaryote digests aerobic bacteria without digesting. This allows the anaerobic eukaryote to efficiently produce ATP2. Bacteria divide intracellularly: some inherited by each daughter cell. 3. Evolution/loss of essential functions bacteria can no longer survive outside of cellMitochondria-Chloroplasts-(Plants only)4. Aerobic eukaryote ingests photosynthetic cyanobacterium without digesting. 5. Cyanobacteria divide intracellularly: some inherited by each daughter cell. 6. Evolution/loss of essential functionbacteria can no longer survive outside of cell  Chloroplasts -Evidence for endosymbiosis -Endocytosis: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have 2 membranes.-Like bacteria: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have their own genomes.-Like bacteria: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts divide by fission independently from cell host.-Evolution: Mitochondria and Chloroplast genomes are more similar to bacterial genomes than to eukaryotic nuclear


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