New version page

UB BIO 201 - Lipids and Nucelic Acids

Documents in this Course
Load more

This preview shows page 1 out of 4 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 4 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Bio 201 1st Edition Lecture 6 Outline of Last Lecture I. Protein FoldingII. Disease 1° StructureIII. PolysaccharidesA. Glucose PolymersIV. LipidsA. Fatty AcidsOutline of Current Lecture I. Lipids ContinuedA. Fatty Acids/Trans FatB. TriglyceridesC. PhospholipidsD. SteroidsII. Nucleic AcidsA. The Central DogmaB. Discover of DNAC. DNA vs. RNAD. Discovery of DNA StructureE. PolymerizationCurrent LectureI. Lipids Continued-Lipids are the 3rd biological macromolecule. They are responsible forenergy storage, compartmentalization, and signaling. A. Fatty Acids cntd. -Trans Fats are a type of fatty acid. They are unsaturated andderive from chemical hydrogenation of cis-fatty acids. -Natural unsaturated fatty acids are all cis (bent), these allhave a low melting temperature. Most are liquids at room temperature. -Trans Fats are chemically unsaturated fatty acids thismeans they are not cis (bent). Trans Fats act more like saturated fats. They are very badfor you because they interfere with metabolism, and they absorb the good fats. These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.B. Triglycerides- These too are derived fromfatty acids. Triglycerides are the primary stage for fatty acids. Triglycerides can berecognized as the fat on our thighs. -The fatty acid attaches to a host (such asglycerol) this process is considered a condensation reaction, however it is notpolymerization. C. Phospholipids- Thesederive from fatty acids and the host from triglycerides (glycerol) -1/3 of the Carbons inphospholipids have a phosphate/polar molecule attached to the backbone. -Phospholipidshave a long hydrophobic (non-polar) tail and a hydrophilic (polar) head group. -Phospholipids in aqueous solutions self-organize in micelles, liposomes, and lipidbilayers. -Lipid bilayers are essential for compartmentalization, therefore, essentialfor the survival of a cell.-Amphipathic (aka amphiphilic)- Molecules that have both polar and Non-Polar characteristics. D. Steroids- Have a 4-ring structure, and are important forsingaling. -Like the other Lipids, these are not derived from a Fattyacid. -Steroids can contain cholesterol, which in a certainamount is important for the cellular membrane.* Be able to recognize their general structure *II. Nucleic Acids-The last Biological Macromolecule. -Nucleic acids are used for information storage and function of the cell (ribosomes) -Without nucleic acids there would be no cell, nucleic acids are the Blue Prints -Nucleic acids are obviously acidic, and they contain phosphorous. -Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides (DNA & RNA)A. Central Dogma-DNA contains the blue print for cells (genotype) -RNA is the intermediate-Proteins directly determine the appearance of cells (phenotype) -The central dogma is the equation of how we get proteins: -DNARNA is transcription -RNA Protein is translationB. Discovery of DNA- The first person to discover DNA was the poor, underappreciated scientist J. Friedrich Miescher in 1869.-He discovered a substance that was present in White Blood Cells that was unique from other biomolecules, because it had the presence of phosphorous. He called this substance “nuclein” today we call it DNAC. DNA vs. RNA-DNA has a sugar of deoxyribose, its bases are A, G, C, and T -RNA has a sugar of ribose, its bases are A, G, C, and U-The deoxygenation of 2’ –OH requires an extra enzymic reaction-2’-H makes DNA more stable, this is why DNA is the main nucleotide and not RNA-ATP- Considered the gasoline for cells, looks like modified RNAD. Discover Structure of DNA- Watson and Crick were the first to discover the double helix shape of DNA -DNA is a right handed helix-DNA has non-polar bases embedded in the interior, because they are hydrophobic. Polar phosphate groups are on the exterior -DNA is antiparallel meaning the orientation of the nucleotides goes in opposite directions-DNA strands are held together by Hydrogen bonds:-G-C: 3 H-bonds-A-T: 2 H-bonds-Purines- Adenine, and Guanine while Pyrimidines are Thymine, and Cytosine -Purines and Pyrimidines always pair together-Each strand runs in opposite directions as its complimentary strand, the non-complimentary strand holds the proteinsE. Polymerization of Nucleic Acids-monomer are nucleic triphosphates -Phosphate on 5’ Carbon on new monomer binds to 3’ Carbon on existing polymer-The loss of pyrophosphate from original monomer provides energy for polymerization-DNA and RNA polymerize 5’ to


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Lipids and Nucelic Acids and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Lipids and Nucelic Acids and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?