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UB BIO 201 - Proteins, Polysaccharides, and Lipids

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Bio 201 1st Edition Lecture 5 Outline of Last Lecture I. Protein Structure/ LevelsA. RibonucleaseB. PolypeptidesC. Primary (1°)D. Secondary (2°)E. Tertiary (3°)F. Qauternary (4°)II. Fibrous ProteinsIII. Globular ProteinsA. DomainOutline of Current Lecture I. Protein FoldingII. Disease 1° StructureIII. PolysaccharidesA. Glucose PolymersIV. LipidsA. Fatty AcidsCurrent LectureI. Protein Folding - the final conformation of a protein is to be folded -Amino acids form hydrogen bonds that can be broken when heated, to unfold proteins you simply have to heat the protein (ie. When you cook an egg you are unfolding the protein) -When you unfold a protein this leaves exposed residues that should not be exposed. These exposed residues do not match up to the correct amino acid causingproblems in the protein. –Ribosome is the cells factory for producing protein, it ribosome reads the RNA and translates that into a set of amino acids –Most proteins have a secondary structure and R-groups that lead to tertiary structuresThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.II. Disease in 1° Structure –Sickle Cell Anemia is a common hereditary disease, when you have both traits from your Mom and your Dad (homozygous) the disease can be fatal, however if you just get the trait from one of your parents (heterozygous) the disease protects you from malaria-Red Blood Cells become sickle shaped causing them to get stuck in the blood vessels leading to pain and a blockage of Oxygen -Sickle Cell Anemia is caused by a single amino acid change In B-Globin (beta), when this structure becomes mutated an exposure of “sticky” residues leads to inappropriate interactions and formation and crystallization of fibrils. These sticky residues then stick together to form long chains of hemoglobin, this is why the Red Blood Cells cannot get through blood vesselsIII. Polysaccharides- Polysaccharides(2+ monosaccharides) are our second Biological Macromolecule, also called carbohydrates-Disaccharide- polymer of 2 monosaccharides-Oligosaccharide- polymer of 3-20 monosaccharides -The formula of polysachharides Cx(H2O)y, a hydrated carbon chain -These structures are not linear but in a hexagon shape, there is always an extra Carbon, pointing up, that hangs off the hexagon, there is also an –OH hanging off the hexagon too, if the –OH and C are pointing the same way than the isomer is beta, if the –OH and C are facing away from each other than the isomer is alpha-sugars are always chiral Dextro (right-handed)-Monosaccharides always contain 3 or more Carbon atoms, in glucose there are 6 or 7 Carbons-Polymerization in monosaccharides is a condensation reaction (releases water) 2 different monosaccharides can come together to form a different polysaccharide (ie. Glucose + Galactose = Lactose) -A glycosidic linkage (bonds) is formed between Oxygen and 2 adjacent CarbonsA. Glucose Polymers-glucose- lowest common denominator of energy, only found in living organisms, and is the most important formfor energy storage and structure (ie. Cellulose- used for structure, is B1-4 glycosidic and indigestible foranimals, Starch (in plants) and Glycogen (in animals)- used for energy storage, is a1-4 glycosidic, and animals can digest these) IV. Lipids-The third Biological Macromolecule, compartmentalizes the cell, stores energy, and is used for signaling (communication between cells) –Lipids do not have a biological monomer like the other 3 Biological Macromolecules but they are polymers of chemicalsA. Fatty Acids- aka “free fatty acids” are the secondary energy source (primary being glucose) for many organisms –Fatty acids have 12-24 Carbons, most commonly an even number –The R-group of Fatty acids is a hydrocarbon (CH) –Longer chains more sticky Van der Waal bondsmore energy required to separate chainshigher melting temperatures (ie. Palmatic acid C16 has a much lower melting temp. than Arachidc acid C20) –More saturated fatty acids have higher melting temps. -Saturated- maximum # of Hydrogens possible given the # of Carbons, when a fatty acid is saturated the lipid is packed close together straightly, and flexible. Many Van der Waal interactions in these saturated fatty acids leads to lots of energy needed to separate the bonds, therefore there is a high melting temp. These are fats ( found in animals)Unsaturated- don’t have max. # of Hydrogens therefore there is at least one C-C double bond. These unsaturated fatty acids are packed together poorly, and are bent and rigid, so little energy is needed to separate the bonds, therefore there is a low melting temp. These are liquids in their natural state, such as oils (found in many


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