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Psyc 412 1st Edition Lecture 6Outline of Last Lecture I. Aerobic exerciseII. AccidentsIII. Cancer-related behaviorsIV. Healthy dietV. ObesityVI. Yo-yo dietingVII. Eating disordersVIII. Sleep Outline of Current Lecture I. Health-Compromising BehaviorsII. Substance Dependence III. Alcoholism and Problem DrinkingCurrent Lecture- Health-Compromising Behaviorso Many of these behaviors share a window of vulnerability in adolescence:o drinking to excesso smoking o using illicit drugso having unsafe sexo using risk-taking behaviors-behaviors are tied to the peer cultureo image of these behaviors as “cool”o behaviors, though dangerous, are pleasurableo behaviors develop graduallyo substance abuse of all kinds is predicted by some of the same factorso most problem behaviors more common in lower SES individuals- Many health-compromising behaviors are begun during adolescence/young adulthood, and are then set for adulthood- Substance Dependence: person is dependent on a substance when they have repeatedlyself-administered it resulting in tolerance, withdrawal, and compulsive behavioro Physical dependence: body adjusts to substance and incorporates its use into normal functioning of the body’s tissueso Tolerance: larger doses needed to produce same effectso Craving: conditioning process is involved so that environmental cues trigger intense desireo Addiction: person has become physically or psychologically dependent on a substance following use over a period of timeo Withdrawal: unpleasant symptoms, both physical and psychological, that people experience when they stop using a substance on which they have become dependent - Alcoholism and Problem Drinkingo Scope of the problem: third leading cause of preventable death more than 20% of Americans drink at levels that exceed government recommendations alcohol consumption is linked to high blood pressure, stroke, cirrhosis of the liver, fetal alcohol syndrome and some cancers 41% of traffic-related deaths related to alcohol many drinkers keep their problem hiddeno Alcoholism: physical addition to alcohol withdrawal symptoms when abstaining from alcohol high tolerance for alcohol little ability to control drinkingo Problem drinking: may not have all symptoms listed above, but do have substantial social, psychological and medical problems resulting from alcohol o Origins of alcoholism and problem drinking: genetic, gender, physiological, behavioral and sociocultural factors are involved Origins: mix of genetics, environments, social interactionso Drinking and stress: drinking buffers stress, reduces negative emotions, lowers anxietyo Alcoholism tied to social and cultural environment of the drinkero Social origins of drinking: two windows of vulnerability:- dependence starting between 12 and 21 years- late middle age depression and alcoholism may be linkedo Treatment of alcohol abuse: 10 to 20% of alcoholics stop drinking on their own 32% of alcoholics can stop with minimal help some use of cognitive-behavioral modification without employment or social support, prospects for recovery are dim Detoxification: 1st phase of treatment for hard-core alcoholics, carefully supervised and monitored in a medical setting, followed by therapy Cognitive-behavioral treatmentso Treatment programs: self-help groups such as AA (Alcoholics Anonymous) inpatient/outpatient programs:- detoxification- short-term, inpatient therapy- continuing outpatient treatmento Can recovered alcoholics ever drink again? Alcoholics Anonymous philosophy: - An alcoholic is an alcoholic for life Drinking in moderation seems possible for: young, employed problem drinkers those who have not been drinking for long those who live in supportive environmentso Is modest alcohol consumption a health behavior? modest alcohol intake (1-2 drinks/day) may add to a long life- coronary artery disease may be reduced- HDL (“good” cholesterol) may increase- fewer strokes moderate drinking among younger adults may enhance risks of death, probably due to alcohol-related


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