This preview shows page 1 out of 3 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 3 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Psyc 412 1st Edition Lecture 7Outline of Last Lecture I. Health-Compromising BehaviorsII. Substance Dependence III. Alcoholism and Problem DrinkingOutline of Current Lecture I. SmokingII. Project DAREIII. Social Engineering and SmokingCurrent Lecture- Smokingo single greatest cause of preventable deatho Enhances the detrimental effects of other risk factorso in the U.S., accounts for about 1 in 5 deathso increases the risk of many diseases and disorderso smokers are generally less health-conscious than non-smokerso dangers not confined to the smoker; hazards of secondhand smokeo may lower cognitive performance in adolescentso Synergistic effects of smoking: smoking enhances the impact of other risk factors in compromising health:- smoking and stress can interact in dangerous ways- weight and smoking can interact to increase mortality- smokers engage in less physical activity- smoking is considered a potential cause of depression, especially among youth- smoking is related to an increase in anxiety among adolescentso A brief history of the smoking problem: considered sophisticated and a “manly” habit 1940s - large numbers of women smoke 1964- first U.S. Surgeon General’s warning is issued 1991- teenagers who smoked - 18.5% 2006- teenagers who smoked – 23%o Tobacco companies target younger peopleo Why do people smoke? genetics: smoking runs in familieso Factors associated with smoking in adolescents: 23% of high school students already smoke peer and family influences self-image and smoking the nature of addiction in smokingo Interventions to reduce smoking: changing attitudes toward smoking the therapeutic approach to the smoking problem:- Nicotine replacement therapy- Bupropion (Zyban)- multimodal intervention- social support and stress management- interventions with adolescents- maintenance- relapse preventiono Social engineering and smoking: liability litigation regulation of access of tobacco by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) heavy taxation restricting smoking to particular places more effective, larger warning labels (cues to action)- Strong peer and family influences- Self-help aids: programs developed for smokers to quit on their owno Nicotine patches, gum, quitlines, other programs- Smoking prevention programs: aim to catch potential smokers early and attack the underlying motivations that lead people to smoke- Social influence intervention:o Modeling: when people observe models apparently enjoying a risky behavior, fears of negative consequences are reducedo Behavioral inoculation (W.J. McGuire): similar to inoculation against disease; if one can expose individuals to a weak version of a persuasive message, they may develop counterarguments against the persuasive message, so they can successfully resist it if they encounter it in a stronger form- Life-skills training approach: if adolescents are trained in self-esteem and coping enhancement as well as social skills, they will not feel much need to smoke to bolster their self-image- Project DARE:o Started 1983o To keep kids off drugs-more than 25 million children in the U.S. have completed ito Very little evidence that it workso Stresses refusal skills and public commitmento Some evidence that as exposure increased, more negative attitudes towards police, more positive attitudes towards cigarettes, alcohol, drugs- Social engineering and smokingo Liability litigation (supported by VA)o Regulation of access of tobacco by FDAo Larger warning labels (cues to action)o Restricting smoking to particular placeso Heavy taxation If you want it you’re going to buy it Low-income smoker-may not be able to pay for lots of cigarettes  Adolescents: high risk group but have very little mile Higher tax, fewer lung cancer deaths (fewer people seem to be buying cigs)o E-cigarettes Some people able to quit tobacco with them (instead end up with oral fixation) Don’t really know long term effects of them


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Smoking and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Smoking and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?