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Psyc 412 1st Edition Lecture 8Outline of Last Lecture I. SmokingII. Project DAREIII. Social Engineering and SmokingOutline of Current Lecture I. Autonomic Nervous SystemII. NeurotransmittersIII. Disorders of the Nervous SystemIV. Multiple SclerosisV. The Endocrine SystemCurrent Lecture- Autonomic Nervous Systemo Sympathetic Prepares the body for actiono Parasympathetic Restores body to a normal stateo Sympathetic-increases during an emergency or times of high activity (exercise), start to sweat, pupils dilateo Parasympathetic-the rest of the time (digestion, rest)o They act in complement to each other o The Brain hindbrain:- medulla, pons, cerebellum- Medulla-basic biological function (beating of heart), primitive- Pons-regulatory function on medulla, in charge of sleep, wakefulness- Cerebellum-regulates some voluntary muscles in trunk (balance), little brain, combination of motor and gross coordination midbrain:- major pathway for sensory and motor impulses moving between forebrain and hindbrain- Midbrain-superior and inferior colliculi: responsible for peripheral reflexes (superior), auditory reflexes (inferior) forebrain:- diencephalono thalamus Thalamus-relay center for the braino Hypothalamus Hypothalamus (below thalamus)-important for stress response, regulates fight-or-flight response, hunger and feeding behaviors, sexual arousal and sex behaviors, body temperature Forebrain (continued) telencephalon: - 2 hemispheres- Occipital: Processes visual information- Parietal: somatosensory strip, tactile information, spatial information- Wernicke’s area: understanding speech, spans the parietal and temporal lobe. Hear words but can’t understand them, speak nonsense- Temporal lobe-processes auditory information, olfactory info- Frontal lobe: processes taste information, decision-making, complex thinking, higher reasoning, logic, impulse control, judgemento Limbic system: Amygdala: - detection of threat- fear conditioning- Limbic-responsible for waking you upo Hippocampus:  emotional memories Hippocampus: most memories, transfer memory from short term to long term. Works with amygdala to make memories coupled with fear very potent, could cause phobiaso Cingulate gyrus, Septum, areas of the Hypothalamus:- emotional functioning- Neurotransmitters:o chemicals that regulate nervous system functioningo Catecholamines:  epinephrine and norepinephrine- promote sympathetic nervous system activity released during stressful times- Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline): enable us to cope effectively with stressful experience- Disorders of the Nervous System:o Epilepsy: seizures, uncontrolled firing of neurons in the brain, idiopathic (cause not known)o Cerebral palsy: caused by lack of oxygen (during birth) to parts of brain, have motor deficits-little control over body, intellectual deficitso Parkinson’s: damage to brain, not enough dopamine, gets gradually worse, lose motor function (tremors to whole body malfunctions)o Huntington’s disease: caused by single dominant gene, develops later in life, motor problems, causes brain damageo Polio: mostly gone now, damage to nervous system caused by pathogen, we’re vaccinated against it now, often passed in bad water- Multiple Sclerosiso Destruction of the myelin sheath that surrounds (many) nerveso Autoimmune disordero Relapsing versus progressiveo Sunlight? (Vitamin D)o 400,000 individuals in U.S.o Enables mis-transmission o Causes different system depending on where it affects: brain problems, motor problemso May be linked to lack of sunlight-Vitamin D- The Endocrine Systemo complements nervous system in controlling bodily activitieso regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland o Contrast with the nervous system which is responsible for fast-acting, short duration responses. o Compliments the Central Nervous system (stress response)o Pituitary gland: master gland of body, controls other glandso Adrenal Glands small glands at top of each kidney each gland composed of adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex  Adrenal glands: important for stress response Medulla-middle, produces epinephrine and norepinephrine,  Cortex-covering, outside produces epinephrine and norepinephrine, cortisolo Disorders involving the Endocrine System: Diabetes:- body cannot manufacture/properly use insulin (manufactured by the pancreas)- Type I: insulin-dependent diabeteso Type I: affects younger people- Type II: insufficient insulin or sensitivity to ito leading risk factor: obesityo But, more younger children are getting Type II because they are


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