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Psyc 412 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 7Chapter 1- Health Psychology: exciting and relatively new field devoted to understanding psychological influences on how people stay healthy, why people become ill and how they respond when they do get illo Health psychologists focus on: Health promotion and maintenance  Prevention and treatment of illness Etiology and correlates of health, illness and dysfunction Health care system and formulation of health policy Helping people cope more effectively with disease- Behavioral medicine: sub-field of health psychology that specifically focuses on working with medical patientso Focuses on helping individuals adhere to medical regimens and cope more effectively with their illness- Mind-Body Relationshipo Disease was believed to be: evil spirits entering the body, result of imbalance of blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm, or God’s punishment for evil-doingo Freud contributed conversion hysteria: unconscious conflicts produce physical disturbances such as “glove anesthesia” (sudden loss of speech, hearing, or sight), tremors, or muscular paralysis - Conversion Disorder:o A type of somatoform disordero a psychosocial conflict or need is “converted” into dramatic physical symptoms that affect voluntary or sensory functioningo low (and apparently decreasing) prevalenceo more common in women than meno Typically brought on by stress- Psychosomatic Medicine:o Dunbar and Alexander: linked patterns of personality to specific illnesses helped shape belief that bodily disorders are caused by emotional conflictso criticisms: methodological problems conflict and personality not sufficient to produce illness restricted the range of medical problems caused by psychological and social factors- Ulcerso For many years, it was thought that the primary cause was stresso Individual with ulcers were sent for therapyo Helicobacter pylori- Biomedical Methodo all illness can be explained on the basis of aberrant somatic bodily processes; psychological and social processes are irrelevant to disease process- Biopsychosocial model:o health and illness are consequences of the interplay of biological, psychological and social factorso Advantages of the Biopsychosocial Model: macrolevel processes and microlevel processes interact to produce a state of health or illness the mind and body cannot be distinguished in matters of health and illness researchers have adopted a systems theory approach to health and illnesso Clinical implications: diagnosis should always consider biological, psychological and social factors in assessing an individual’s health or illness recommendations for treatment must examine all three sets of factors the relationship between the patient and the practitioner is significant- Why is the field of Health Psychology needed?o advances in technology and research: role of Epidemiology in Health Psychology morbidity and mortalityo expanded health care services health care is the largest service industry in the U.S.o increased medical acceptanceo demonstrated contributions to healtho methodological contributions: experiments correlational studies prospective designs retrospective researchChapter 3- Health Behaviors: behaviors undertaken by people to enhance or maintain their healtho Role of behavioral factors in disease and disorder: successful modification of health behaviors can:  reduce deaths due to lifestyle related illnesses delay time of death, increasing longevity expand years of life free from chronic disease complications o health habits: firmly established behaviors that are often performed automatically such as wearing a seatbelt, brushing one’s teeth and eating a healthy diet primary prevention – instilling good health habits and changing poor oneso Barriers to modifying poor health behaviors: not knowing when to intervene to change health habits instability of health habits health behaviors are elicited and maintained by different factors for different peopleo Intervening with children and adolescents: socialization: the influence of parents as role models using the “Teachable Moment”: window of vulnerability adolescent health behaviors influence adult health: precautions taken in adolescence may affect disease risk after age 45 more than adult health behaviorso Interventions with at-risk people: children and adolescents are vulnerable o Benefits of focusing on at-risk people: may prevent or eliminate poor health habits an efficient and effective use of health promotion dollars makes it easier to identify other risk factorso Problems with focusing on risk: people do not always perceive their risk correctly testing positive for a risk factor causes worry and restrictive behavioro Ethical issues: when is it appropriate to alarm at-risk people? some may react defensively sometimes there is no successful intervention emphasizing risks can raise complicated issues of family dynamicso Health promotion and the elderly: focus is on:- maintaining a healthy, balanced diet- developing a regular exercise regimen- taking steps to reduce accidents- controlling alcohol consumption- eliminating smoking- reducing the inappropriate use of prescription drugs- vaccinating against influenza- Changing Health Habitso Educational appeals: vivid communications expert communicator strong arguments at beginning and end short, clear, direct messages messages should state conclusions explicitly caution with extreme messages depending on the audience, communication should include favorable and/or non-favorable pointso fear appeals: message framing - Health Belief Model:o whether a person practices a health behavior depends on: perception of health threat perception of threat reduction support for the Health Belief Model using the Health Belief Model to change behavior- Theory of Planned Behavior:o a health behavior is the direct result of a behavioral intentiono Caveats to changing health behavior: attitudinal approaches not very successful for explaining spontaneous or long-term behavior change communications can provoke irrational, defensive reactions some people hold irrational beliefs about health thinking about disease may produce a negative mood attitude change may not alter behavior and maintain behavior change-


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