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Lecture 5 Outline of Last Lecture I. Wildlife Diversity a. Parts of Ecosystems b. Scale of Ecosystems III. Interactions a. Trophic Levels b. Energy Loss c. Niche IV. Habitat a. Food b. Water c. Cover-Thermal d. Cover-Behavioral e. Space !Outline of Last Lecture V. Causes of Population Changes !VI. Constituents of Food a. Energy Flow i. Kinds of Energy b. Water c. Minerals d. Vitamins VII. Limitations on Food Intake a. Behavioral b. Morphological/Physiological c. Environmental Limitations NRC 261 1!!!These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best !used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute. !!VIII. Adaptations a. Morphological b. Behavioral !!Current Lecture Food and Nutrition How does it affect wildlife distribution & abundance? •survival •reproductive — better condition, easier to have offspring •behavior Food Considerations •how much food is available? •is the food homogeneously distributed? •seasonal •can nutritional requirements be met? •If yes was answered to the 4 above questions, then can that food sustain the needs of the species? •the group needs to be able to sustain themselves, not just the individuals —inter-breeding will carry on the species !Lynx introduced into Colorado parks — the lynxes began starving because they were put in a place without enough food (like snowshoe hares) to sustain the whole population condors — scavenge carcasses as a form of food, but they would eat the carcasses of animals that had been shot with lead bullets. They consumed this lead and were poisoned important to have enough good quality food to sustain a population of more than 15 or 20 condors in the wild (right now they’re still in captivity)!Is Starvation Important? •22 herbivore species — major population decline from starvation (much more from this cause than disease or predation) Causes of Population Changes •proximate cause — apparent •usually predation •ultimate cause — underlying •why are they so susceptible to predation? •food or disease related — the more unhealthy an animal is, the more it will get preyed upon •predators hunt the weak •it only appears to be predation but there’s often an underlying issue —makes animal more vulnerable Constituents of Food •energy •water •minerals •vitamins !Energy Flow •the part used just for living/ staying alive •consumed energy •digestible — become muscle mass, etc. and used for respiration •get rid of it —through pooping for example •lots of places that E can end up/ where E is needed •the storage of E can be used for reproduction and growth!!growth rates vs. energy consumption •less energy than is needed for growth —lose weight •wanted to find out how much energy is needed so animal doesn’t lose weight •can be important to figure out if they’re in good or bad shape !Kinds of Energy •fat •carbs •proteins Energy Contents of Food •9.5 kcals per 1 gram of fat •similar #’s for different types of carbs — gives half of the energy that fat does though •protein gives 5.7 (in the middle) •also varies depending on the kinds of foods you eat !Protein •building blocks —enzymes/hormones •tissues (structural) — must consume protein to make muscles grow •season availability changes •for plants — low in winter, low in dry season •effort spent to get food isn’t the same throughout the year •protein and reproduction •during 1st 10-15 weeks, all species need 20-30% of diet to be protein —MUST develop certain structures to get to adult size!•maintenance level is much lower •egg production in females —shoots up again to provide nutrients for growing embryo •this is true for any animal, not just egg-layers — protein responsible for fetal development !Water •no matter what size, all animals are mostly water •water sources •free •streams, ponds, faucets etc. •preformed •like in fruit, contained in a food •metabolic •generated within the body when you break down food •water “comes off” the krebs cycle •breakdown of food & capturing of water very important — some animals are really good at maintaining that water Minerals •macro-elements •Calcium, potassium, phosphorous, sodium (bones, salt, blood ph) •animals need a lot •micro-elements •iron, zinc, selenium, iodine •sources •food — drawn from soil, atmosphere!•soil — geography (eating minerals as the minerals themselves) •animals going to salt licks •bones •vultures get calcium this way Percent of Items at Nests •2 kinds of vulture (white-backed, cape) •white-backed = mostly bones present in the nest (92%) •cape (endangered) = only 31% bone pieces in the nest, the rest were artifacts/other non calcium sources •endangered because they were suffering from lack of calcium •to help the population—needed to make sure there were enough small bone pieces around !Vitamins •minute amounts — essential •most can’t be synthesized by animals •some fat soluble —stored in body (no excretion) •A, D, E •some water soluble — can’t be stored so they must constantly be consumed •B, C •ex: scurvy — sailors got sick & died, consuming food with vitamin C constantly, can avoid scurvy **What kind of food doesn’t just mean quantity, quality is just as important !Limitations on Food Intake •Behavioral!•ex: Pika —have lots of food to store away for winter •raccoons & bears store food in far for winter — don’t eat for next few months so needs everything in body •when out foraging, prey must constantly be looking for predators — limited amount of time to be out in the open •Morphological/Physiological •lions & hyenas can eat 30% of their body weight in one meal •do this because that’s when the food is available, it might not be there again the next day •environmental limitations •snowy owl — in tundra sometimes small animals overly abundant one year, next year there might be none •when there’s no lemmings, owls don’t eve nest •booms & busts year by year — bears & owls production gets synchronized •lemming crashes in arctic —>owls come south looking for food (like to Mass, or form Alaska to Siberia) !Adaptations •morphological •ruminant (4 chambered) stomach — lots of bulk, regurgitated/chewed to be broken down •keep working it in digestive system to get max. E/nutrients


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