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POLS 021 1st Edition Lecture 6 Outline of Last Lecture I. The Constitutional Amendments and the “Spitting Lyon”a. Amendments 13-25Outline of Current Lecture:I. The 26th-27th AmendmentsII. Ideologya. French Revolution and National Assemblyb. Different Ideologies Existing Todayc. Natural Selectiond. ControlsCurrent Lecture:26th Amendment: People ages 18-21 allowed to vote. Slogan: “Old enough to fight, old enough to vote”27th Amendment: Any increase in the pay (a raise) of legislators may not take effect until after an election (after they go the election process).The 22nd Amendment, which sets a limit on the number of times a U.S. President can be elected (2 four-year terms), renders a President a “lame duck” as soon as they win their 2nd term for presidency. Bernie Sanders has offered a Climate Change Amendment to the Keystone Pipeline Bill (authorizing the construction of the pipeline), forcing Republicans to state their views on climate change by asking if they are “in agreement with the opinion of virtually the entire worldwide scientific community” on the issue of climate change. Ideology: A secular religionAntoine Destutt de Tracy (1754-1836): A French Enlightenment aristocrat and philosopher who coined the term “ideology.”The French National Assembly was seated by ideology (1789): These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute......French Revolution—The Guillotine: Origins of the modern guillotine date back to late-1789, when Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotine proposed that the French government adopt a gentler method of execution. He was personally opposed to capital punishment, but he believed that decapitation would be more humane and egalitarian than sword or axe beheadings (often botched). He oversaw the development of the first prototype, designed by French doctor Antoine Louis and built byTobias Schmidt (German). He was later beheaded by his own supposed invention. In class, the professor said that he died of his own invention, but this is a myth. Rumors of this myth circulated because there was a different person named “Guillotine” who indeed was executed by the guillotine. In reality, Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotine died in Paris in 1814 (aged 75) of natural causes.Different Ideologies Existing Today:Egalitarian: See the world on a similar level – as a geometrically flat planePolitical groups Socialist Group (center-left) (292) UMP Group (rightist) (199) UDI group (centre-right) (30) Ecologist Group (17) Radical, republican, democrat and progressist (centre-left) (16) Democratic and republican left(leftist) (15) Non inscrits (8)Hierarchal: See the world as a hierarchal pyramid Liberalism and Conservatism are dissimilar in social structure but similar in how they see the world (flat geometric plane). Division of Authority: Libertarian  Egalitarian   Authoritarian Social Structure Dimension:Hierarchical  Anarchism Social Darwinism Communism FascismHierarchicalLibertarian AuthoritarianEgalitarian Natural Selection: Herbert Spencer- developed an embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the modern physical world. Best known for his expression, “Survival of the Fittest.”William Graham Sumner: Wrote Folkways: A study of the sociological importance of usages, manners, customs, mores, and morals (1907). Folkways are social conventions that are not considered to be of moral significance by members of the group.Hybrid Doctrines – Libertarian and Conservatism Liberalism and Conservatism Socio-Political ControlsEconomic Controls HIGH LOWHIGH Authoritarian LibertarianLOW Conservatives LibertarianHierarchicalEgalitarianAuthoritarian LibertarianSocial Darwinism: Religion of the gilded age in the U.S.FascismAnarchism CommunismExamples of Controls:Market Place Controls: anti-trust legislation, Price Controls, etc. Work Place Controls: minimum wage, maximum hours legislation, occupational safety, etc.Socio-Political Controls: Censorship, Prohibition, Right to Vote, Illegalization of Abortion, Illegalization of Marijuana, etc. Laissez-Faire: Leave the economy alone because it will work itself


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