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POLS 021 1st Edition Lecture 3 Outline of Last Lecture I. Spiritual Authority vs. Secular Authority a. End of Roman Empireb. Religious strainsc. Catholic vs. Protestantd. The Tudor Dynastye. Emigration of Protestants and PuritansII. Causes of the Creation of the Social Contracta. The Interregnumb. Stuart Restoration and the Glorious RevolutionOutline of Current Lecture I. English-American Colonies in the 1700si. French and Indian Warii. Religious and Ethnic Migrationsiii. English Taxation ConsequencesII. After Effects of the American Revolution i. The Declaration of Independenceii. Articles of Confederation and Shay’s Rebellioniii. The Constitutional Convention and the Constitution of 1787iv. The Federalist Papersv. The Great Compromisevi. The Bill of RightsCurrent Lecture:English-American Colonies in the 1700s:These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Native Americans side with the French during the French and Indian War (1754-1763)- There is intermarriage between the Indians and French because the French did not bringtheir wives like the English did. - The French and English armies fought in rows, but this changed after they witnessed how the Native American Indians fought with guerilla warfare. - They learned how to fight like the Indians because it was far more effective in terms of destroying thy enemy. Religious and Ethnic Migrations:- Puritans – the most important colonists – were wealthy, well connected, and educated. They settled “the city on the hill” (Boston) with a superior arrogance. That is why, even today, they are referred to as “Mass-holes”- There was no clear state religion that dominated the rest. The middle colonies especiallywere a hodge-podge of different religions. The Consequences of the French and Indian War/The Start of the American Revolution:- It is the cost of this war that makes England decide to tax the colonies- This leads to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the Boston Tea Party in 1773- April 19, 1775: Paul Revere’s Ride – “The regulators are coming” – because everyone was, in fact, British. - The Lexington Minute Men were private colonists who independently organized to form a well-prepared militia. The Concord Minute Men include John Hancock, Sam Adams andPaul Revere. - The Shot Heard ‘Round the World: refers to the first shot of the American Revolutionary War. Occurred in Concord, Massachusetts, where the first British soldiers killed in the battles of Lexington and Concord fell. *Fun Fact*: The original label for Sam Adams beer was sold with Paul Revere because hewas a good-looking fellow (at least more so than Sam Adams). Early Revolutionary Battles (all losses):- The first great victory was the Capturing of Fort Ticonderoga (May, 1775), which was led by Ethan Allen (brother to UVM founder Ira Allen) and Colonel Benedict Arnold.- The British Evacuation of Boston: Henry Knox surrounds the British with cannons in order to expunge the British from New England. The Declaration of Independence:- Mirrors John Locke’s Social Contract- Not technically a revolution because King James II is still on the throne. It is a succession from the reach of the British Crown. The Revolution Stiffens:- French join Americans because they enjoy British discomfort; they want revenge after the French and Indian War.- Valley Forge (1776)- Marquis de Lafayette – French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War- Revolution victorious (1783)- Battle of Yorktown (1783)- Treaty of Paris (1783)The French soldiers go back home after fighting in the American Revolution and realize that their monarchy is even more oppressive than the English monarchy. Articles of Confederation and Shay’s Rebellion:- Shay’s Rebellion – After court actions designed to collect back taxes forced farmers into bankruptcy, a rebellion formed that caused court closures across the region. The rebels were defeated and dispersed, and Shay escaped to Vermont (an independent republic – not yet a state of union). The rebellion symbolized the fatal weakness of the national government: under the Articles of Confederation, Congress could not raise a national army without unanimous consent of the states, so it was unable to act in time to assist Massachusetts. This weakness spurred the Constitutional Convention because it showed the need to define a stronger and more capable federal government.Constitutional Convention and the Constitution of 1787The Virginia Plan vs. The New Jersey PlanVirginia Plan (Big States): Drafted by James Madison and presented by Edmund Randolph.Dealt with legislative representation and called for a national government with three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. New Jersey Plan (Small States): Presented by William Patterson. Created in response to the Virginia Plan because less populous states were opposed to giving most of the control of national government to the more populous states. This alternative proposal would keep the one-vote-per state representation under one legislative body from the Articles of Confederation.The Great Compromise:- A slave’s vote counts as 3/5 a person.- The Slave Trade has to end 20 years after the ratification of the ConstitutionThe Publication of the Federalist Papers: Written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay to promote the ratification of the Constitution. North Carolina rejects the Constitution because of insignificant protections for individuals, and so the Bill of Rights is created in 1789 (collective name for the first 10 Amendments of the U.S. Constitution) to assuage the fears of Anti-Federalists (who opposed the ratification of the Constitution of 1788). These amendments guarantee personal rights and freedoms, limit the government’s power in judicial and other proceedings, and reserve some powers to the states and the


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