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POLS 021 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture I. The Constitution and the Bill of Rightsa. Separation of Powersb. Original Amendments II. The Current Political Systema. Congress and House of Representativesb. Presidential Election and Impeachmentc. Vice-Presidentd. Amendments to suffragee. JurisdictionOutline of Current Lecture:I. The Constitutional Amendments and the “Spitting Lyon”a. Amendments 13-25Current Lecture:The Fair Haven Editor and the Vermont U.S. Representative Mathew Lyon physically fights with the Connecticut U.S. Representative Roger Griswold in 1798. He was the first member of Congress to have an ethics violation charge filed against him when accused for “gross indecency” for spitting in Roger Griswold’s face. Nickname: “The Spitting Lyon”. In the election of 1800, Mathew Lyon cast the deciding vote for Thomas Jefferson after the election went to the House of Representatives because of an electoral tie. Civil War Amendments 13, 14, and 15Amendment 13: Abolishes Slavery Became a part of the constitution in December of 1865Vermont-born Thaddeus Stevens: House Floor Leader for the 13th Amendment and for the Impeachment of Andrew JohnsonThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Thaddeus went to UVM but was expelled for decapitating a cow. This was done to protest the farmers grazing their cows and creating “meadow muffins” on the university green. He transferred to Dartmouth in Pennsylvania to finish his education. Vermonters are the Hindus of New England; there is even a cow on the state seal. 14th Amendment: All persons born in the U.S.A are citizens of the U.S. They cannot be denied personal rights and freedoms to life, liberty, and property (Civil Rights). Under the law, all citizens have equal protection. Corporations lobbied to be legally perceived as people recently, and therefore have the same civil rights as individual citizens do under the 14th Amendment. Amendments 16-19: The initiative and referendum processes for citizens were created to directly introduce or approve proposed laws or amendments to the state constitution (Oregon was the first state to adopt such a system in 1902). This eventually gave people of the state the ability to create legislation through a majority vote, and the power to vote for a recall referendum (procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through direct vote before his term has ended) in 1908. This would go on to establish popular election ofU.S. Senators and the first presidential primary in the U.S (Oregon System of “Initiative, Referendum, and Recall”).1890s: Federal government attempted to enact a national income tax in 1894. Though in 1895, the Supreme Court found the Income Tax Law unconstitutional because, at that time, all federal taxes had to be based on state population. 16th Amendment: Allows Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning (dividing) it among the states. Adopted in February of 1913. 17th Amendment: Senate directly elected by the people (AKA popular vote –1913).18th Amendment: The Anti-Saloon movement had an extremely successful lobbying movement1919 –Alcohol was prohibited—the only amendment up to date to be appealed because almost everyone was getting drunk illegally. The 18th Amendment partially occurred because Americans were getting mad that so many immigrants were coming in. So they took away the Jews’ and Italians’ wine, the Germans’ Beer, the Irish’s whiskey and everything. 19th Amendment: Women’s Suffrage ratified. Congratulations Suffragettes!Mississippi, like in everything, was the last to ratify the 18th and 19th Amendments. 20th- 21st Amendments: Separated the election of the president from the election and swearing in of Congress. This was done to give the House of Representatives ample time to decide the presidency (17 days).The 21st Amendment repeals The Prohibition (1933).22nd Amendment: No person shall be elected more than twice (for president)—No more than 2terms before the president has to leave office. As soon as Republicans gained control they passed the 22nd Amendment because of Democratic President Roosevelt’s long presidential reign. Franklin Roosevelt was the President of the UnitedStates for 3 terms; he was elected for a 4th term, but died within months of the term to be succeeded by Harry Truman. 23rd-24th Amendments: The District of Columbia was given an electoral vote, but their vote does not count on the House floor. Anti-Poll Tax Amendment (1964): Poll Tax abolished in federal electionsTo prevent African Americans (and often poor whites) from Voting, Southern States of the former Confederacy adopted poll taxes. The tax included a grandfather clause, which allowed whites whose grandfather’s had voted to not pay the tax. They excluded African Americans fromthe voting electoral process through poll taxes, difficult literacy tests, and requiring voters to present 5 years of previous voting receipts. Lyndon B. Johnson:25th Amendment: The Vice President becomes president when the President is removed from office. The President is responsible for replacing his Vice-President when there is, for any reason, an opening (ratified in


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