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HIST 1311 1st Edition Lecture 2 Outline of Last Lecture • “America” before ColumbusI. "Beringia"II. Early SettlementsIII. On the Eve of CoastOutline of Current LectureIV. European Exploration • Spain and the "New" WorldCurrent Lecture“America” before Columbus-Precursors • Greeks using radicals and geometry figured out the world was round. • What is Renaissance? Rebirth of arts and science, which starts in Italy in the late 1200s. One of the products is: A. Claudius Ptolemy (2nd century CE) • Roman Egyptian created a map • It was "rediscovered" (15th century) • Problems? Not accurate, circumference calculation was wrong. B. Behaim Globe (1492) • A German introduces the Behaim Globe • Sepangu = Japan C. Other developments in the West These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.• Portugal's first political identity begins to push out invader. They reconquer their land. Nation State: equivalence of a country, based on boarders for a long part of time. What is culture? A way of life to give meaning to people; centralized government that has a shared future with nation. • Portugal starts to look outward. Prince Henry starts a Navigation School (15th Century) • Tools borrowed from East: - Astrolabe: picking celestial objects and measure them with the horizon to determine the location. - Compass: uses magnets to detect poles. (Chinese invention) - Cog: old medieval style ship with flat hole which makes it only sail on the shallow. - Caravel / Lateen: is like a sail; has a deeper hole so is stable in deep waters and rough seas. (Borrowed by Arabs)Note: China had the capacity but not the desire to colonized America. Portuguese were looking for resources, for example gold.-Kingdom of Mali: • (14th- 17th Century)• Mansa Musa (14th Century) is a Muslim; he went on a pilgrimage to Mecca to ensure his salvation. Portuguese traded captives for gold. • Hajj and Cairo Inflation -He had a crew of 100, and went they went through Egypt; they dug so much gold they collapsed the Egyptian’s economy.-Other Portuguese: • Bartholomew D. (1488) -They reached Southern Africa. He got to "Cape of Sorrow", which is a giant cliff structure, very difficult to navigate.•Vascow de Gama (1497) -He make is t all the way to India, to the "Spice Is". Since it was a long voyage, they had to stop to get supplies frequently, and lead them to "Westerlies".Note: Importance of 1492 is Columbus and the GlobeSpain and the "New" World United Spain (1469) A union of power in the region• Ferdonanol ll (Aragon) • Isabella l (Castle) Spanish Nation State: negative relation with other nations.-Reconquista (1492) is to reconquer their land and culture. By 1492, the Reconquista was complete and had a unified Spain. Cristopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer, citizen of the Republic of Genoa. He acclaimed that to get to India there was a shorter way, the West. -He is getting his knowledge from:• Ptolemy's Geographia • Behaim Globe • L'Anse aux Meadows• Leif Erickson (ca 1000) Taino: He comes in contact on his first voyage. He wanted to conquer them all, for gold. Upon his return, the crown will give him an encomienda, which is the right to the people of the land that is they were not Christians; the conquistador had to make them Christians himself. He said that for labor they should use Africans because they were stronger and more immune to diseases.Bartolome de las Casas • Historia de los Indios Colonization •Treaty of Tordesillas - Divides the world into influences of Portugal and Spain. • Hernan Cortes- A governor in Cuba who led an expedition to Central Mexico that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire.- Queztalcoatl (1519) Cortez and his crew come riding into town and take over it. - Moctezuma the emperor of the


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