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HIST 1311 1st Edition Lecture 1Outline of Current Lecture “America” before ColumbusI. "Beringia"II. Early SettlementsIII. On the Eve of CoastCurrent Lecturel. "Beringia"How to we measure time?-carbon dating-before Christ (BC), after Christ (AC)BCE = Before the Common EraThere was an ice age and people. Much of the global ocean was ice. It expands, and the water levels decrease, and we get land masses that is not accessible. For instance, it is what we call the Bering Land Bridge, also called Beringia, in which many human populations and animals firstused to pass from Asia to populate the Americas. A. Other theories?• Global warning= it cuts two population• Evolution= they will develop different, have certain genetic habits• Diseases and Immunities= come from plants, animals-procreate, so people of other generations are more resistantEX: Spanish Influenza = people living at close proximity to livestock; 75 million of deathsBubonic Plague= flees on rats; 100-200 million of deathsThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.B. Agricultural Revolution• Corn, beans, and squash are the 3 agricultural sisters. ll. Early SettlementsFirst settlements in North America• begin along the Ohio River Valley • They were called mount builders 1500 BC - 1000 CE• Along this Ohio River Valley, these groups share some common traits:1. Growing maze (corn)2. Trade and commerce3. Burial mountainsA. Adena (1000-200 BCE)- Their mounts would align with celestial objectsB. Mississippians (800- 1500CE)1. Cahokia (city) estimated population was 20,000–40,000 people2. Monks Mound: a ritual mound for monks; 15 acres NOTE: The connection between these groups, they have the same life structure we have.C. Anasazi (850-1250 CE)1. Chaco Canyon-they built a structure known as Pueblo Bonito. It was built out of clay and housed 800 people. They build this type of structure to protect themselves from natural disasters.KivaD. Aztecs (1400-1521)1. Mexica (ethnicity)2. Nahuatl (language)3. Aztlan (provenance)4. Tenochititlan (capital)- They developed a Tributary Empire, which means conquering outside empires and let the people stay unless they sent gold, foods, or slaves.- They sacrificed their slaves to appease the Sun God for the sun to come out every day. They removed off their hearts.- They might have continued these rituals because it is part of their culture and for their people to keep believing.NOTE:**What did the Spanish noticed about the environment when they first got there?-very red-dry and humid-smelllll. On the Eve of Coast1. Major World Powers in the Old WorldA. Ming Empire in China (1368-1644)1. Zheng He(1405-1433) was in control of a newly form Chinese navy. In this period hemade nine voyages around China and makes it far as the east coast of Africa, where they picked up exotic animals to take back to China. He was Muslim and was a neuter. Neuters are individuals that are castrated at birth, in order not to be treat to other males. 2. Junks (ships) for the voyages-Length of the football field-Each one had a crew of 30,000 peopleB. Ottoman Empire- named after Osman 1, the founder- Mehmed ll - Contained a huge amount of land- They were Turkish clan- They would control the Black Sea and the Mediterranean for centuries- They settle in the region known as Asia Minor.- Until the late 1200s, they begin to expand and consolidate these tribes.- In the beginning of 1422, they will set an encampment around the Byzantine city of Constantinople- From 1422-1453, they will built fortifications on the east side, known now as Istanbul and wait and wait.- 1453: They finally invade Constantinople and conquer it. It became the crown jewel of the Ottoman Empire. They renamed it Istanbul.- Lasted until 1918 (World War l)C. Europe in the Ottoman Context1. Mediterranean Trade- silk, spices, tea- had to pay the Ottoman Empire in order to keep trading through here.2. Florence- Medici- banking family that runs Florence- They build the largest dome in Europe - Architect was


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