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CORNELL NTRES 2201 - Internships

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NTRES 2201 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of previous lectureI. AnnouncementII. LeopoldA) Leopold’s backgroundB) ContextIII. Sand County AlmanacA) EcologyB) EthicsC) EstheticsD) Interpretation of the bookIV. A light and fast history of social theoryA) Social theoryB) Five questionsC) EnlightenmentD) Industrial revolutionE) Outline of current lectureF) Current lectureG) I. InternshipsH) *Interested? Email professorI) *You can even get paidJ) *The application deadline is in a couple of weeksK) II. Key figures of the EnlightenmentL) A) Questions to ask about these peopleM) 1) How does this person believe nature works?N) 2) How do they believe human society works?O) 3) What do they believe is the proper role of government?P) B) David HumeQ) *Science of manR) -ExperienceS) -ObservationT) *Behaviors can be explained by motivesU) *Empiricism – without regard to theory V) C) Emanuel KantW) *We cannot observe with a blank mind… we are dictated by theoriesX) *Critic of Pure ReasonThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Y) *Most of the following people follow KantZ) D) HobbesAA) *His view of nature is purely competitiveBB) *Humans are also naturally competitiveCC) *Each of us has a right in our natural state to clobber someone and steal their stufDD)*Solution: a strong central government to protect ourselves against ourselvesEE) E) Herbert SpencerFF) *Social DarwinismGG) *Coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”HH) *If someone is not strong enough to protect themselves, they are better of deadII) *Government should not interfere, should not protect the poor/sick/oldJJ) *Problem with his theory: Some level of cooperation is necessary for complex societiesKK) F) John LockeLL) *Father of classic liberalism (NOT politics… stresses individual freedom/rights)MM) *Human nature is characterized by reason, experienceNN) *Societies progress by appropriating resourcesOO) *Labor is important, but there are limits: Can only produce so much, can only consume PP) so muchQQ) *Unused nature is a wasteRR) *Government’s role: help us overcome limitsSS) -Colonialism (more resources)TT) -Protect our ability to keep our wealthUU) -Create a monetary economyVV) G) Adam SmithWW) *Wrote Wealth of NationsXX) *The free market looks chaotic, but as everyone tries to better themselves, it YY) improves all of societyZZ) *Government’s role: to protect our right to pursue our selfish interestsAAA) *Labor must be dividedBBB) H) DurkheimCCC) *Division of laborDDD) *Traditional society: Mechanical solidarity (social norms, agreement, we’re all the same)EEE) *Modern society: Organic solidarity (specialization, depend on others’ specializations, FFF) diference in beliefs/culture as well, possible breakdown of social structure)GGG) I) Critiques of Enlightenment thoughtHHH) *Not everyone can benefit… we will end up with a class societyIII) *These people are overly optimistic about how much society can progressJJJ) *Malthus: this age of reason is wildly optimistic… can progress really do all this?KKK) *Malthus: population vs progress… see graphLLL)MMM)NNN) populationOOO)PPP) progress (food/resources)QQQ)RRR)III. Democratic revolution*Decline in monarchs*Decline in the authority of religion*Emergence of the idea of “rights”*Social mobility (rags to riches) *Government becomes interested in rights and social


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