WSU COMSTRAT 312 - Final Exam Study Guide (10 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


PR research and planning

Study Guide
Washington State University
Comstrat 312 - Principles of Public Relations
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Comstrat 312 Edition 1nd Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 18 24 Lecture 18 24 1 Research The basis for informed decision making a Allows decision making based on fact rather than hunch rule of thumb b Risk reduction i Needed as costs and importance of decisions increase ii Needed as certainty decreases c Precampaign help us understand audiences establish benchmarks and plan d Postcampaign provides basis for evaluating campaign outcomes and communication success to others 2 Types of research a Formal i Scientific ii Systematic formal process iii Produces objective result b Informal i Unscientific ii Process not formal or systematic iii Produces subjective results c A continuum of techniques d Key issues i Accuracy error free ii Reliability same results on successive trials 3 Validity a Internal i Are you measuring what you think you re measuring b External i Can you generalize your findings c Inference 4 Sampling and external validity generalizability a Probability based random samples i Probably are representative of the population b Non probability based nonrandom samples i Probably are not representative of the population 5 Research planning process a Develop research questions hypotheses i Determine problem statement ii Narrow problem define terms and concepts b Review past research and related research literature c Design research d Gather data e Analyze data f Organize findings and determine implications 6 Commonly used research a Informal i Clip files ii Personal contacts iii Advisory committees idea juries iv Literature database reviews 1 May be formal or informal v Email phone call analysis b More formal i Focus groups ii Depth interviews c Surveys i Use nonprobability samples 1 Members of a population don t all have an equal chance of selection 2 Lack systematic processes 3 Suffer from high rates of nonresponse or have other flaws 7 Mail a Advantages i Lower costs ii Scattered respondents iii Sensitive subjects iv Lists available v No interviewer bias vi Professionals other busy people b Disadvantages i Time studies take longer to complete ii Response rates tend to be low this is changing iii Control who completes surveys iv No questions flexibility explanation requires careful pretesting v Length generally survey should be short vi Inducements needed to increase participation 8 Telephone a Advantages i Lower costs ii Time studies take less time to complete iii Lists available to sample from or random digit dialing iv Some question flexibility explanation b Disadvantages i Response rates now are low ii Length survey must be short iii Potential for confusion iv Potential for bias v As a practical matter may be limited to persons with land line phones 9 Personal Interviews a Advantages i Flexible ii Response rate questionable iii Lists available iv Can estimate some information v Rapport may help with data collection b Disadvantages i Cost can be very expensive ii Time studies take longer to complete iii Strong potential for bias iv Supervision intensive labor intensive v Some groups are hard to reach c Mall intercepts other intercepts i Quick and easy to conduct ii Nonprobability sample iii Poor data collection environment iv Strong potential to misuse results 10 Internet a Advantages i Cost generally inexpensive ii Time studies completed more quickly iii Some survey flexibility iv Useful for reaching widely scattered respondents v No interviewer bias vi Lists available vii Professionals other busy people b Disadvantages i Sample limitations ii Low response rates need to motivate response with inducements iii Length survey must be short iv Control who fills out survey 11 Surveys a Mixed mode use of multiple interview formats i Advantages 1 Allows researchers to compensate for weaknesses in methods 2 Provides flexibility survey mode participant contact mode 3 Different modes may help improve response rates 4 Can be relatively inexpensive ii Disadvantages 1 12 Research results a Confirm key aspects of research methods b Examine data results carefully i Pay special attention to surprising or contradictory results ii Don t miss findings because you disagree or because they reveal problems iii Don t selectively interpret results c Use results for guidance they don t solve problems on their own 13 Public relations planning and problem solving a PR comes from journalism has taken same approach i Little planning ii Reactionary management situations control people b Offensive vs defensive actions i Typically PR has waited for things to happen resulting in defensive actions ii Creating good will is a weak offensive action little goal orientation c Deadline orientation i Creates crisis situations ii Inefficient use of time and resources d Not much expected of PR from an organizational standpoint 14 Planning advantages and difficulties a Advantages i Helps to better define problems ii Provides a basis for scheduling time and resources iii Budget often competitively determines 1 Planning allows budgeting based on objectives iv Builds credibility 1 Most disciplines understood in quantifiable terms 2 Practitioners can quantify PR with planning v Enhances cooperation 1 Within the PR departments everyone has the same goal 2 Those outside the PR departments see PR contributing to organization goals b Difficulties i Requires initial investment of time ii It is sometimes necessary to react adjust to unanticipated events iii PR can be difficult to plan and manage and quantify c Management by objectives i System of management in which the activities performed are determined by the desired results ii Goal orientation iii Maximization of time and resources 15 Simplified planning process a Using MBO i Determine mission statement 1 Broad futuristic statement under which many activities can occur 2 Long term in orientation 3 Typically determines at an organizational level 4 Used to give general direction to an organization ii Determine goals 1 You must accomplish these to reach your mission 2 To get started ask How am I going to reach contribute to my mission 3 Typically occur at the divisional level iii Determine your objectives 1 Follow from goals 2 Relatively short term and very specific 3 You must accomplish these to reach your goals 4 To get started ask How am I going to reach my goals 5 Typically occur at the divisional or departmental level iv Determine tasks 1 Follow from objectives 2 Very short term and very specific 3 You must accomplish these to reach objectives 4 To get started ask How

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