UGA BIOL 1108 - Ecology: Ecosystem Ecology (9 pages)

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Ecology: Ecosystem Ecology



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Ecology: Ecosystem Ecology

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Pages:
9
School:
University of Georgia
Course:
Biol 1108 - Principles Bio Ii
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01 20 3 45 6782 9 01 0 3 AB C D 01 AB C 0B 3 3 E0 F 0 60 B 0 G0 0 030 H I B3A 3J 03 3 K J K B3 0 01 0 BF 0 B3 1 3 K0 0 G0 0 D AJ F B DK 0 0 Figure 52 2 Global ecology Landscape ecology Ecosystem ecology Community ecology Population ecology Organismal ecology 4 LKB B3 0 01M LK A I0 B 0M Figure 55 1 Figure 55 2 01 2BI N K0 1 A 3B1 O 30 B33 0 0B 0A A0 0AP 3 B3 N0 0A B3 N 10A K0 0N 0P I0 B3 N I N 1 3DJ 0 0B 0 B K0B N 1 B3 1 3A 2BI N K0 1 A 3B1 O 0 0Q KB3 0 N 030 3 0B 0 03 D R S0SP 30T 03 B3A B K0B U 2BI N 3 0 BF 3 N 1B O VBW0 B33 0 0B 0A A0 0A XK01 B 0 01 B3A B3 0 10B J 0A Y Figure 55 4 Sun Key Chemical cycling Energy flow Heat Primary producers Primary consumers Detritus Secondary and tertiary consumers Microorganisms and other detritivores 5 4 Z 1B Z AJ F 3 O 0 JD IKB C B B B 0 N J 0 I K 3 K0 0 01 Z 1B Z AJ F 3 R ZZU 0 Z 1B Z AJ F 3 R ZZU Net primary production kg carbon m2 yr 3 2 1 0 Figure 55 6 LKB B 0 1 BF 3 D AJ F 3 B JBF 0 01 M b Marine zonation Intertidal zone Neritic zone 0 200 m a Zonation in a lake Littoral zone Photic zone Benthic zone Continental shelf Limnetic zone Aphotic zone Photic zone Benthic zone Pelagic zone Oceanic zone Pelagic zone Aphotic zone 2 000 6 000 m Abyssal zone Figure 52 13 9 LKB B 0 1 BF 3 D AJ F 3 0 0 B 0 01 M Desert Temperate grassland Tropical forest Temperate broadleaf forest Northern coniferous forest Arctic and alpine tundra Figure 52 10 Figure 55 10 30 B3 N0 Plant material eaten by caterpillar 200 J Feces 67 J 100 J Not assimilated Cellular respiration 33 J Growth new biomass secondary production Assimilated Y 30 B3 N0 B Z B1 A Tertiary consumers 10 J Secondary consumers 100 J Primary consumers 1 000 J Primary producers 10 000 J 1 000 000 J of sunlight Figure 55 11 6 0 K01 B X 0 Reservoir A Organic materials available as nutrients Living organisms detritus Fossilization Reservoir B Organic materials unavailable as nutrients Peat Coal Oil Respiration decomposition excretion 030 B V A0 Reservoir D Inorganic materials unavailable as nutrients Assimilation photosynthesis Weathering erosion Minerals in rocks Burning of fossil fuels Reservoir C Inorganic materials available as nutrients Atmosphere Water Formation of sedimentary rock Soil Figure 55 13 5 LB 0 X 0 Movement over land by wind Precipitation over ocean Precipitation over land Evaporation from ocean Evapotranspiration from land Runoff and groundwater Percolation through soil 4 Figure 55 14a XB 3 X 0 CO2 in atmosphere Photosynthesis Photo Cellular synthesis respiration Burning of fossil fuels and wood Phytoplankton Consumers Consumers Decomposition Figure 55 14b Figure 55 14c 03 X 0 N2 in atmosphere Reactive N gases Industrial fixation Denitrification N fertilizers Fixation NO3 Dissolved organic N NH4 Runoff Terrestrial cycling NO3 N2 Aquatic cycling Denitrification Decomposition and sedimentation Assimilation Decomposition Uptake of amino acids Fixation in root nodules Ammonification NH3 NO3 Nitrification NH4 NO2 Y ZK DK J X 0 Wind blown dust Geologic uplift Weathering of rocks Runoff Consumption Decomposition Plankton Dissolved PO43 Uptake Leaching Plant uptake of PO43 Sedimentation Decomposition Figure 55 14d 5 9 Figure 55 15 EXPERIMENT Ecosystem type Arctic Subarctic Boreal Temperate Grassland Mountain A G T M S U P E F L N D B C H I O J K Q R RESULTS Percent of mass lost 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 15 C A D B E K J F I G H U R O Q N M L P T S 10 5 0 5 10 Mean annual temperature C 15 01 AB C 0B 3 3 E0 F 0 60 B 0 G0 0 030 H I B3A 3J 03 3 K J K B3 0 01 0 BF 0 B3 1 3 K0 0 G0 0 D AJ F B DK 0 0 K 3 B J 0 BF 3 a O b I A I0 3 I IKB B 0 c3 1B d N B3 0 01M O LK 1D B3 0 0 B3 0 01M 9


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