UNC-Chapel Hill HIST 158 - Final Exam Study Guide (22 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Comprehensive overview of every Hist 158 lecture this fall.

Study Guide
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Hist 158 - EARLY MODERN EUROPE Lecture 3
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HIST 158 1ST Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lecture 1 August 21 Significant splits Fall of Rome in 476 o A clash of civilization o The decline of the Roman Empire was actually a slow process that had many contributing factors External forces Barbaric forces called The Franks brutally take over Internal forces Religious economic and political turmoil o Roman Empire splits Western Roman Empire Rome Eastern Roman Empire Constantinople Roman Catholic Church West v Orthodox Church East o Great Schism of 1054 Christianity and Islam o Muslims Arabic groups invasions led to the split Overall the church becomes a powerful political force o The Pope excommunicates the Emperor for naming bishops against his will and the Emperor is forced to formally apologize o People become extremely religious and superstitious Lecture 2 August 26 Society economy and technological scientific advances Society and Economy o Three divisions noble clergy peasants Fixed divisions that often caused tensions o Economy long decline revival starting in 11th century o Burghers people living in the cities often part of the middle class People heard of the opportunities in the cities and moved Became a very attractive ideal peasants were no longer bound to the land town air makes one free Cities grew and economy was stimulated o Famines and The Black Plague 1347 Wiped out a third of European society Science Technology and Exploration o People thought they were living in special times o Major technical innovations The Printing Press 1435 1450 A collaborative invention Glutenberg Fust Schoffer China block printing and paper Flanders ink Germany advanced metal and working skills Global effects o Scholarship accuracy collaborative accessibility o Dissemination of ideas on a global scale o New learned class in the cities not only clergy had access to books and newspapers o Revolutionized the way people would read and write The New Warfare 1450 1500 Trebuchet machine to project throw stones Gunpowder to build cannons Conquest of Constantinople 1453 o Ottoman Turks could conquer city with German weaponry Proletarianization of War o Before this time only nobles were trained to fight now peasants could operate weapons too o Initiated major social changes in regards to war No longer a Gentleman Noble Sport Emerging national monarchies benefitted the most as they recruited men from the countryside to form armies Lecture 3 August 28 New Science The Scientific Revolution o Before this time the Medieval world was seen as finite and heterogeneous o Copernicus 1473 1543 a Polish scientist End of geocentrism the Earth isn t at the center of the universe the sun is Homogeneous universe heavenly and earthly spheres didn t have independent laws of physics Rupture between observation and scientific evidence principle of what you can t see can still exist Regardless of these advancements Copernicus still believe the universe remained finite this made his ideas more acceptable to the public o Giordano Bruno 1548 1600 First to argue that the universe was infinite Because God is infinite why wouldn t the universe be Bruno was eventually burned at the stake in 1592 because of his radical arguments and his questioning of religion o Galileo 1564 1642 Italian scientist Demonstrated that Copernicus was right Created the telescope Believed that God wants us to use our gifts in science Scripture doesn t account for many phenomenons and that s where science steps in Both the bible and science come from God Discovery and Exploration of the world o Cartography the practice and study of making maps o Jerusalem was in the center of the map o Ptolemy an ancient geographer s geography rediscovered Ptolemy encouraged readers to go beyond the confines of the history books they had read explore and find new places to add to his maps Lecture 4 September 2 Crises and humanism Crises in the 14th Century Famine starting in 1315 and continuing until 1322 unusually wet spring summers followed by a harsh winters Crops were destroyed and animals starved Overall lack of food Plague arrived in Europe in 1340s with Genoese galleys Carried by Italian merchants from China A third of Europe s population was lost o Age of Republics Emergence of new social classes with the new cities Popolo grasso wealthy merchant and urbanized noble classes Decline and revival of the Italian economy Central location between East and West Republicanism elected council and assembly of the people Served the interests of the leaders not exactly a democracy Popolo minuto small people Growing gap between popolo minute and popolo grasso Humanism denotes an educational and cultural program based on the study of the classics and colored by the notion of human dignity Grafton and Rice Back to the classics Virgil and Augustine o Dante 1265 1331 announced the Renaissance guelphs gribbelines exile Divine Comedy Virgil who wrote the Iliad in which Trojans fled and founded a new Rome o Petrarch 1304 1374 Ascent of Mont Ventoux known for his love poems and intense exploration of human personality and mind Augustine s confessions long path to Christianity o Machiavelli 1469 1527 once exiled he had time to devote to the classics Humanism o Lorenzo Valla 1407 1457 the first modern historian Through critical analysis he proved that the Donation of Constantine was forged Lecture 5 September 4 Education virtue the arts o Education Humanist education gives people freedom and dignity studied history language arts humanities social sciences etc o Virtue No longer inherited could be taught Greek and Latin Historic text offered concrete examples Belief that a single person could direct the course of history Focus on moral philosophy and physical education o Philosophy Dignity of Man Man had reason and free will Renaissance nobility was based on virtue The Arts o Characteristics of Renaissance Style Perspective Focus on human form Rediscovery of portrait Exploration of psychology and feeling Precursor Giotto s 1267 1337 painting of Jesus portrayal included a great display of emotion Lecture 6 September 9 Florence and Rome o Florence Craftsmanship The doors of the Baptistery Gates of Paradise This building was of great significance to the people so they decided to finance new bronze doors Perspective 3D paintings on 2D canvases Brunelleschi was the first to study perspective systematically Masaccio Trinity 1427 was the first painting with depth and dimensionality Architecture The Dome of Florence s Cathedral o 1296

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