UNC-Chapel Hill HIST 158 - Napoleon (4 pages)

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Key aspects of Napoleon's rule and its impacts on France and all of Europe.

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Lecture Note
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Hist 158 - EARLY MODERN EUROPE Lecture 3
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HIST 158 1st Edition Lecture 22 Outline of Last Lecture I French Revolution a General b Origins c Monarchy to Republic d Terror and Resistance Outline of Current Lecture I Napoleon II Napoleon s Authoritarian State III The New Paternalism IV Military Conquests V Napoleon s fall VI Conclusion Current Lecture I Napoleon a Political instability does rapid political change inevitably lead to violence i 1795 he was a penniless officer just released from prison ii 1796 becomes commander of French army 1 The army was only source of stability in France 2 Was very successful in wars abroad iii 1796 1797 France vs Austria 1 Important military victory iv 11 7 1799 18 Brumarie 1 Successful coup v 1802 names himself First Consul for Life These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute 1 Emperor Napoleon I 2 He chooses 2 helpers 3 These three consuls make all laws and execute them 4 Concentrated power is a corrosive effect of political instability II Napoleon s Authoritarian State a Goals reestablish order in the state and create a dynasty for life and his descendants b Reconciliation with Catholics i How can there be order without religion ii signed agreement with the Pope ending decade of discontent iii Created provinces and prefects of the provinces an loyal administration iv Created the Bank of France to stabilize the economy c Limited freedom of political expression strict control of disagreement and personal opinion d Personal cult as it is in the army i Napoleon wants to be known as the father of the people e Creates monuments celebrating France and himself f Intellectual state i Establishes a prestigious court with scholars and scientists ii Attempted to control every aspect of society iii Bureaucracy was built on patronage III The New Paternalism a What scholars called this new form of government b Acts as the father figure head of the family protector c Combination of aristocratic and revolutionary values i New hierarchy that rewarded merit d Senate and patronage i Different roles in society working together ii Creates a new nobility that serves the state iii Civil Code of 1804 1 Before this France is governed by random regional laws 2 Becomes the only law of the land 3 Protected property and religious rights but severely reduced women s rights e Is an authoritarian government the only way out of divisive politics in times of war IV Military conquests was Napoleon s rise to power a 1800 1812 huge army created with 1 3 million drafted b Military duty was a means of social mobility and patriotic duty c Napoleon was a brilliant General and strategist with fanatical solider loyalty i Morale was the key ii Opponent were divided and uncoordinated 1 In a few years he had conquered Europe minus Britain and Russia 2 Abolished the ancient regime of nobility and forced the civil code V Napoleon s fall a European nationalism surged as they were conquered by the French i Countries didn t want to adopt French ideals b Britain resisted c September 1812 invasion of Russia was Napoleon s undoing i 600 000 soldiers and 250 000 horses invaded a HUGE army ii Russia avoided confrontation retreated iii French finally defeated Russia in Moscow iv Moscow then burns to the ground destroying all chances of living and the French soldiers morale plunges v By December 1 6 of the army remains and many of them were in captivity vi Monarchy is restored with Louis XVIII at the head 1 Napoleon goes into permanent exile VI Conclusion a Human costs of Napoleon s rule is high b 750 000 French and 400 000 drafted soldiers from Europe died c The impact was huge i Idea of a united Europe permanently alters political landscape ii Ideals couldn t prevent terror iii Awakening of nationalism surges d 1789 1815 Republicanism democracy terrorism nationalism military dictatorship Napoleon s rule major change of political regimes i During this short amount of time France experiences a variety of political systems

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