UT Arlington BIOL BIOL 3427 - ch18 (6 pages)

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ch18



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ch18

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Pages:
6
School:
University of Texas at Arlington
Course:
Biol Biol 3427 - Plant Science
Plant Science Documents

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Chapter 18 CLASSIFICATION AND SYSTEMATICS We have grouped organisms for easier study by comparing similarities and differences SYSTEMATICS the study of the diversity of organisms and their comparative and evolutionary relationships It includes comparative anatomy comparative biochemistry comparative physiology etc CLASSIFICATION OR TAXONOMY is the ordering of organisms into groups It includes the principles procedures used in classification PHYLOGENY refers to the evolutionary history of a species or group of species in terms of their derivations through evolutionary processes which species share a common ancestor which species share a more distant ancestor etc Systematics is the study of biological diversity and evolutionary history of organisms Systematics includes Taxonomy the science of identifying and classifying organisms Phylogenetics the study of the evolutionary history of organisms Nomenclature the system used in naming organisms Natural selection has shown that all organisms are related to each other genetically All are part of a large phylogeny Scientifically valid system of naming plants nomenclature should reflect phylogeny that is evolutionary relationship At the end of the XIX Century scientists began to develop a natural system of classification in which closely related organisms are classified together and began to assign plant names on the basis of phylogenetic relationship LEVELS OF TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES The present system of nomenclature was devised by Carolus Linnaeus Carl von Linne a Swedish botanist who lived in the 18th Century Linnaeus published in 1753 a book called Species Plantarum the kinds of plants Binomial system of nomenclature Genus species epithet scientific name of the plant Hierarchical classification groups within groups A taxonomic grouping is called a taxon Taxonomy is hierarchical taxa are grouped into broader taxa Species are grouped into genera sing Genus Genera into families families into orders orders into classes classes



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