UT Arlington BIOL BIOL 3427 - Bryophytes Notes (4 pages)

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Bryophytes Notes



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Bryophytes Notes

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Pages:
4
School:
University of Texas at Arlington
Course:
Biol Biol 3427 - Plant Science
Plant Science Documents

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Bryophytes Chapter 16 Bryophytes Mosses Phylum Bryophyta Liverworts Phylum Hepatophyta Hornworts Phylum Anthocerophyta Significant role as carbon sinks Pioneer species Sensitive to air pollution Bryophytes Transitional between green algae and plants in their characteristics Bryophytes and vascular plants have Male and female gametangia Retention of developing embryo Multicellular diploid sporophyte Multicellular sporangia Spores which resists decay and drying Tissues produced by an apical meristem Thalloid Hornworts and liverworts have flat and dichotomously branched gametophytes called thalli Thalli are undifferentiated In comparison gametophytes of leafy bryophytes and mosses have stems and leaves Rhizoids Gametophytes are attached to surfaces by rhizoids Rhizoids serve to anchor the plant in bryophytes Mosses have special hairs to absorb water Reproduction Asexual reproduction is achieved through formation of gemmae Sexual reproduction Male gametangia antheridia Female gametangia archegonia Bryophytes have flagellated sperm that must swim to the egg Reproduction therefore requires water Spores Spores are encased in sporopollenin Spores germinate to become protonemata in mosses then develop gametophytes and gametangia Hepatophyta Liverworts or hepatics Some genera develop protonema but most gametophytes develop directly from spores Gametophytes continue to grow from apical meristem Three groups of liverworts Complex thalloid liverworts Leafy liverworts Simple thalloid liverworts Complex thalloid liverworts Cells are differentiated Marchantia is an example Anthocerophyta Small phylum of 100 species Cells of most species have a single large chloroplast Rosette like gametophyte Dichotomous branching is not apparent Bryophyta Three classes Sphagnidae Peat mosses Andreaeidae Granite mosses Bryidae True mosses Sphagnidae Unusual protonema Plate of cells rather than filaments Acidify their environment Perforated cell walls allow high waterholding capacity Andreaeidae



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