UT Arlington BIOL BIOL 3427 - ch21 (2) (15 pages)

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ch21 (2)



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ch21 (2)

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Pages:
15
School:
University of Texas at Arlington
Course:
Biol Biol 3427 - Plant Science
Plant Science Documents

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Chapter 22 SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS EVOLUTION OF VASCULAR PLANTS Notes from Raven et al 7th Edition Plants had an aquatic ancestor probably a Coleochaete like alga of the Chlorophyta Coleochaete algae are monobiontic one multicellular generation Plant evolution shows a tendency toward greater independence from water as they progressively occupied the land Air is drier than water and less buoyant Land plants had to develop adaptations to conserve and transport water with its solutes absorb water from the environment support itself facing the direction of sunlight solve reproductive problems like fertilization and nourishment of embryo and dispersal of offspring 1 Dominant sporophyte and reduced gametophyte In bryophytes the gametophyte is dominant generation Water is required for fertilization Pollen and embryo sac are much reduced gametophytes The occupation of the land by the bryophytes was undertaken with emphasis on the gameteproducing generation which requires water for fertilization Dibiontic two multicellular generations 2 Development of fluid transport system the xylem and phloem Aquatic plants take water throughout their entire body On land soil is the water reservoir the air is dry in comparison to cells 3 The ability to synthesize lignin Early land plants were small and probably stayed upright by means of turgor pressure Lignin adds rigidity to the cell wall and allows the plant to reach greater heights 4 Development of apical meristems Bryophyte sporophyte growth is subapical and unbranched It allows the sporophyte to branch many times 5 Ability to produce many sporangia Only one sporangium is produced the bryophyte sporophyte The many branches of vascular plants became capable of bearing many sporangia 6 More diverse plant body through the development of roots stems and leaves Roots for absorption storage and anchorage Stems for support above ground transport and growth toward the light Leaves for photosynthesis 7 Evolution of seeds Provides the embryo



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