UT Arlington BIOL BIOL 3427 - glossary (4 pages)

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glossary



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glossary

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University of Texas at Arlington
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Biol Biol 3427 - Plant Science
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BRYOPHYTE AND SEEDLESS PLANTS GLOSSARY A archegonium a multicellular structure that contains an egg cell antheridium a multicellular sperm producing structure found in the bryophytes and in some vascular plants alternation of generations a reproductive cycle in which a haploid phase the gametophyte produces gametes which after fusion in pairs to form a zygote germinate producing a diploid phase the sporophyte angiosperm one of a group of plants whose seeds are borne within a mature ovary fruit asexual reproduction the creation of new individual plants without the involvement of gametes vegetative reproduction such as the formation and rooting of plantlets leaves and stems fragmentation of rhizomes axillary bud a bud that forms in the upper angle axil between a stem and a leaf B brood body a structure that functions as a vegetative propagule such as gemmae bulbils and underground tubers a term usually restricted to the bryophytes a form of asexual reproduction bipinnate having each segment pinna of a leaf divided to the midrib into secondary pinna see pinna and pinnate bryophytes the members of the phyla of nonvascular plants mosses hornworts and liverworts C capsule the sporangium of bryophytes calyptra the hood or cap that partially or entirely covers the capsule of some mosses formed from the top half of the expanded archegonium cilia fine hairs on the leaves and stems of some liverworts coelocaule a hollow outgrowth from a leafy liverwort stem that surrounds an archegonium compound leaf a leaf whose blade is divided into several distinct leaflets cone a sporangium containing structure consisting of a number of modified leaves or ovule bearing scales grouped terminally on a stem a strobilus conifer a cone bearing tree a member of the phylum Coniferophyta clubmoss small creeping or pendulous plants with narrow evergreen leaves microphylls and in some terminal club like cones members of the phylum Lycophyta cladophyll a branch resembling a foliage leaf cuticle a waxy or fatty layer on the outer wall of epidermal cells formed of cutin and wax cotyledon the first leaf formed by the embryo in seed plants D diploid having two sets of chromosomes characteristic of the sporophyte generation of plants dichotomy ad dichotomous the division or forking of a stem into two branches divaricating branching at widely divergent angles intertangled stems spreading at a wide angle dicotyledon or dicot those angiosperms characterized by having two cotyledons in their seeds dehiscing or dehiscent said of any structure that is rupturing or splitting open capsule opening in the bryophytes E elater a filamentous spirally thickened cell which changes shape with humidity endemic n endemism restricted to a certain region epiphyte a plant that grows upon another plant but is not parasitic on it F foot the lower portion of the moss sporophyte that is embedded in the tip of the moss stem an absorbing organ flagellum pl flagella a long thread like organelle that protrudes from the surface of a sperm cell used in locomotion flower a reproductive structure of angiosperms in its generalized form consisting of sepals petals stamens and carpels frond the leaf of a fern G gametangium a multicellular structure in which gametes are formed gamete a haploid reproductive cell gametes fuse in pairs forming diploid zygotes gametophyte the gamete forming haploid 1n More detail gemma pl gemmae a small mass of vegetative tissue that when broken off can form a new plant common in the bryophytes gymnosperm a seed plant with seeds not enclosed in an ovary H haploid having one set of chromosomes characteristic of the gametophyte generation hepatics a term for the liverworts or Hepatophyta heterospory adj heterosporous having two types of spores designated as microspores and megaspores homospory adj homosporous having only one kind or size of spore hydroid water transporting cells found in some mosses I indusium a membranous growth of the epidermis of a fern leaf that covers a group of sporangia sorus integument the outermost layer of tissue enveloping the ovule develops into the seed coat internode the part of a stem between two successive nodes L lamina the blade of a leaf leptoid carbohydrate transporting cells found in some mosses lignin a long chain molecule added to cell walls that imparts great strength and stiffness also is a waterproofing agent in cell walls M meiosis two successive nuclear divisions in which the chromosome number is reduced from diploid to haploid and the segregation of genes occurs meiosis in plants takes place during spore formation micropyle a pore in the outer integument of an ovule that leads to the sporangium inside mitosis one nuclear division in which the duplicated chromosomes separate and the daughter chromosomes form two genetically identical daughter nuclei mitosis in plants takes place in somatic tissue during growth and also during the formation of sperm and eggs morphology the study of form and its development megaspore in heterosporous plants a large spore that develops into a female gametophyte meristem the undifferentiated perpetually young plant tissue from which new cells arise microphyll a small leaf with one vein and one leaf trace that does not leave a gap in the vascular cylinder of the stem common in the Lycophyta microspore in heterosporous plants a small spore that develops into a male gametophyte megaphyll generally a large leaf with several to many veins its leaf traces leave gaps leaf gaps in the vascular cylinder monocotyledon monocot a plant whose embryo has one cotyledon one of the two great classes of angiosperms mycorrhiza pl mycorrhizae a symbiotic association between certain fungi and plant roots characteristic of most vascular plants microspore a spore that develops into a male gametophyte characteristic of heterosporous plants N nitrogen fixation the incorporation of atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds carried out by certain free living and symbiotic bacteria node the region of the stem where leaves are attached O operculum in mosses the lid of the capsule or sporangium P paraphyllia fine outgrowths from the stem in some mosses paraphysis pl paraphyses sterile filaments growing among the gametangia of most mosses and some liverworts that aid in the retention of water parenchyma living thin walled cells of variable size and form More detail peristome in mosses the fringe of teeth around the opening of the capsule sporangium petiole the stem or stalk of a


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