UH GEOL 1350 - phenomenons (3 pages)

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Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Houston
Geol 1350 - Introduction to Meteorology
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Geology 1350 Lecture 22 Outline of Last Lecture I Air Pollution Outline of Current Lecture I Light color and atmospheric optics Current Lecture Reflection scattering refraction diffraction gases aerosol and hydrometer particles Various optical phenomena blues skies rainbows eyes are sensitive to light and color and we see objects because of the light and color that they reflect scattering depends on the size of the objects in particular on the ration diameter of objects vs wavelength types Rayleigh air molecules blue sky red sunsets mie aerosols brownish smog geometric cloud droplets white clouds gas scattering redirection of radiation by a gas molecule without a net transfer of energy of the molecules Rayleigh the longer pathway of light through the atmosphere the more short wavelength are scattered shortly before sundown in unpolluted air blue light and a lot of green light scatters yellow sun special effects in forests blue ridge mtn Virginia blue mtns Australia scattering of blue light by aerosols dust and salts are large enough to cause geometric scattering and change blue skies into hazy white skies aersols and hydrometeor particle scattering redirection of radiation by a particle without a loss of energy to the particle reflection the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection refraction change of medium if different density speed of wave changes if wave travels into a medium of higher density it refracts toward the surface normal depends on wavelength refraction bends short wavelengths more than long wavelengths example is dispersion of white light into individual colors through a glass or ice crystal prism special case refraction These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute and twilight refraction or needing of sunlight creates an apparent sunrise and late sunset also causes the sun to flatten at its base diffraction wavefront encounters an object causing series of secondary concentric waves waves overlap bending of light most important is diffraction and double refraction particles scatter light primarily in the forward direction single internal reflection backscattering rainbow dispersive refraction reflection viewers eye only sees one wavelength from each raindrop rain is in front and sun is in the back after the rain is gone colors split and enter the rain drop at a specific angle the backside and creates reflection after the reflection the blue and red will exit the droplet takes out the radiation and occurs another reflection red color hits your eye and blue passes by in order to see the blue you need additional raindrops different droplets appear when you move and that depends whether you see the red or blue color absorption extinction coefficients cloud water droplets are poor absorption og light but large enough to reflect all wavelengths as geometric scatters fractions or reflected transmitted and absorbed radiation depending on cloud thickness summary of blue and white clouds selective scattering of blue light by air molecules produces the blue sky scattering of all wavelength of visible light in liquid lcloud droplets produces white clouds additional examples colors in the atmos white hazes and clouds high relative humid aerosol particles increases in size by absorbing liquid water mie scattering of all wavelengths with equal intensity whitish color reddish and brown color in smog no2 absorption of blue and some green light often during morning hours when no2 mixing ratios are high nitrated aromatics and PAHS absorptions of blue light soil dust aerosols absorptions of blue and green light blacks colors in smog black carbon what happens to no2 in sunny days photolesis light will split the no2 molecule red skies and brilliant horizon in smog aerosol particles scattering of blue green and red light gas molecules scattering of blue and green light glory the glory around the aircraft shadow is attributed to diffraction but based partly on surface refraction to create the bending that brings the light back to the viewer we have more optical phenomenon if there is more ice cirrus clouds ice crystals halocirriform cloud ice crystals randomly oriented to the ground refract light at an angle of 22 to create an arc less common are the 48 degree halo which require more regular column type crystals sun dogs and dispersion ice crystals selectively refract and bend sun to create brightly colored red spots on either side of the sun example glacier bay Alaska reflection and sun pilar reflection of light diffraction and coronas solar and lunar coronas are caused by diffraction or bending of light as it passes around through ice crystals inferior mirage refraction of light by density differences is the cause for a mirage creating an apparent figure when very hot air rests below air light transmitted bends upwards creating a line of sights into the ground superior mirage occurs when warm air rests above cold air causing the line of sight to head upward and the object appear at a higher attitude example you see high mountains when they are really smaller because of exceptional temperature its all about density

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