UH GEOL 1350 - climate (3 pages)

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climate



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climate

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climate


Lecture number:
19
Pages:
3
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University of Houston
Course:
Geol 1350 - Introduction to Meteorology
Edition:
1
Unformatted text preview:

Geology 1350 Lecture 19 Outline of Last Lecture I Hurricanes II Global climate Outline of Current Lecture I Climate change Current Lecture Weather short term fluctuations temp pressure windspeed wind direction can last hours days or weeks specific location for specific time Climate longer term changes broad composite of average condition of a region temp rainfall ice cover winds years and longer mean state of specific region continent ocean or entire planet Climate is always changing but major concerns for mankind are rapid changes within a short period of time concerns include melting glaciers water storage will disappear droughts problems with water energy rising sea level due to melting glaciers and thermal expansion impact on coastal areas often densely populate climate zone will shift in particular precipitation patterns monsoons will change impact agriculture on distribution of insects included associated diseases higher ocean surface temp more and stronger tropical cyclones changing ocean currents due to change in freshwater saltwater distributions regional and large scale climate variations gulf stream time scales of climate change These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute different time resolution lake bottom sediments pollen in ice caves fossil evidence coral isotopes calcium carbonate layers in caves borehole temp dendrochronology or tree ring data written documents climate is always changing ice core records show that co2 values were about 180 280 ppmv for thousands of years until after 1800 o180 correlates with ice volume and ice volume correlates with co2 level in the atmosphere less ice when temperature are higher higher co2 levels ice core trend match well with atmospheric measurements started in 1958 at Mauna Loa by David Keeling components of climate system co2 can go into the soil as well as oil gas and coil greenhouse effect efficient water prominent carbon dioxide positive feedback in the climate system cooling more snow or ice cover and colder temps warming less snow and ice cover higher temps negative warming more h20 more clouds higher albedo colder temps where clouds h20 vapor is a greenhouse effect sea surface isotherms during august 18000 yr ago estimated from analysis of ocean sediment cores that held temperature sensitive signatures such as sea shell content and oxygen isotope ratios Plate tectonics and drift concentrated continents at higher altitudes eventually more ice cover and reflected more sunlight and created a positive feedback to cause greater cooling Tectonic processes associated with continental drift increased periods of volcanic degassing of c02 which causes warming Higher temperatures increases weathering removal of co2 from the atmosphere reverse warming in a negative feedback loop climate change triggers carbon dioxide fluctuation a orbit eccentricity from ellipse to circle at 100 000 year circles b wobble precession from the north pole pointing toward or away from the sun in july at 23 000 year circles c today tilt obliquity is 23 5 however tilt changes from 22 to 24 5 at 41 000 year cycles other factors amount of dust reflectivity of ice sheets concentration of greenhouse gases characteristics of clouds rebounding of land auto emissions and wild fires are two sources that emit aerosols into the troposphere reduction of incoming radiation and net cooling effect on earths surface as well as volcanic eruptions volcanic eruptions push aerosols into the stratosphere reduction of incoming radiation net cooling effect on earths surface large eruptions have been linked to significant episodes volcano causes warmer temperature throughout years sun spots impact on climate as well as greenhouse gases climate models often test their skill by hind observed climate from 1860 to the present models improved predictions as they became more sophisticated and included greenhouse gases aerosols and changes in solar radiation Climate models predict that land areas will warm more rapidly than oceans particularly at northern high latitudes because Dark boreal trees absorbing three times more solar energy than the snow covered tundra warmer climate positive feedback of boreal forests to expanding their range


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