UH GEOL 1350 - Review (3 pages)

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Lecture number:
23
Pages:
3
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University of Houston
Course:
Geol 1350 - Introduction to Meteorology
Edition:
1
Unformatted text preview:

Geology 1350 Lecture 23 Outline of Last Lecture I Light color and atmospheric optics Outline of Current Lecture I Review Current Lecture 1 Chemical composition of the atmosphere abundant species nitrogen 78 and o2 oxygen 21 no2 nitrogen boring compound are not that reactive unless there are molecules they are stable species that react fast can be removed fast another species carbon dioxide and water vapor most important efficient natural greenhouse effect greenhouse gas and is more abundant 024 can go up to 4 low values of water vapor over the poles because its colder and holds less water warm air holds more water vapor water is exponential co2 most prominent greenhouse gas and abundance in atmo is 4 everywhere other gases ch4 methane o3 ozone n2o NO comes from lightning produces NO everything that warms up expands screaming of the lighting is thunder sonic sound waves natural NO is lightning the other type comes from inside of cars 2 Vertical profile of temp and pressure and the reasons for this vertical profile of pressure decreases as it goes up all the time and decreases exponentially half of atmos pressure at 5 5 we half 500 mb of pressure define layers of atmo with temp and decreases with altitude sometimes closest layer troposphere temp decreases the top of it is tropopause 10km after that it increases because the ozone absorbs radiation which is the stratosphere going up temp decreases because there are less molecules it s the mesosphere then going up it increases again oxygen and nitrogen bonds break up and it s the thermosphere molecules are flying around and are flying fast also radiation is strong change of temp with altitude because highest pressure is close to surface going up pressure decreases then it will face less ambient pressure and it expands and faces photolesis that splits nitrogen and oxygen and produces heat 3 Layers of the atmo as defined by temp and the reasons for this These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute 4 Heat transfer mechanism in the atmo convection vertical wind transport of mass passes gas they move freely when it gets warmer they go somewhere else conduction most important heat transfer on surface and least important in the atmosphere no transfer of mass but a transport of heat atoms cant escape so they vibrate and they all start vibrating which transports heat advection horizontal wind 5 Latent heat phase changes of water evaporation liquid to gas energy is being consumed condensation is gas to liquid energy is being released 6 Radiation depedence on temp energy peak wavelength needs no particles comes from the sun major sources is the sun and earth everybody will exhale co2 which makes you fall asleep because there are too many people zero kelvin 273 15 celsius no radiation no nothing sun emits more radiation 5000f depend on temp to the fourth power moon gets energy from the sun peak wavelength most radiation at 5 micrometers color uv is strong infared is less strong 7 Solar radiation terrestrial radiation compunds that react with it is clouds that are water and greenhouse gases n20 what reacts with uv and or solar radiation is the ozone 8 Reasons for seasons tilt is 23 5 in summer sun is above in winter is lower night is colder day is warmer sunrise is warmer temp change occurs on the surface surface is the first thing that heats up or cools down coldest temp in morning is on surface temp increases with altitude is temp inversion 9 Dew point when temp reaches dew point lots of condensation it occurs on surface grass and particles need particles that will grow 10 Fog about visibility type is radiation occurs in valleys because cooler temp in night which will reach temp radiation is higher when no clouds advection fog occurs in san franisco the pacific ocean is cold the wind pushes the air mass forms clouds then reaches dew point and forms clouds mixing fog river and lakes are warmer than environment colder water warmer grass 11 Wet lapse rate condensation releases heat temp with altitude does not decrease that fast as dry lapse rate stable atmo gets back to original position and neutral doesn t move back or forward unstable moves somewhere else higher probability of unstable atmo is in summer on the poles 12 Most important process that produce rain ice and liquid droplets most prominent clouds that produce rain is cumulus nimbus in cold fronts nimbo in warm fronts nimbostratus drizzle hail stones cumulusnimbus 13 Forces determine wind speed and direction isobars lines of same pressure closest together high wind speed wind around the high clockwise around the low is counterclockwise vertical winds and highs sinking lows rising 14 Scales micro is small macro is long 15 Windrose westerly winds come from the west 16 Land see breaze valley mtn breeze chinook monsoon el nino are formed because land heats and cools faster 17 Zones ITCZ interntrans convergence zone high pressure divergence low pressure convergence 18 Air masses depends on where they come from and surface properties 19 Warm front rain is ahead temp increases aloft cold front 20 Cyclogenesis wind intensify divergence aloft and convergence below 21 Barotropic is iso bars are parallel and baroclinic perpendicular 22 Thunderstorms mature dissipating 23 Tornadoes hurricanes occur 5 20 degrees north and south no hurricanes in equator no hurricanes in poles because the water is cold strongest winds are on the right side of its trajectory 24


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