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We are being influenced without knowing it.
Media Literacy 7 Skills
1. Analysis 2. Evaluation 3. Grouping 4. Induction 5. Deduction 6. Synthesis 7. Abstracting
Breaking down a message into meaningful elements.
Judging the values of an element.Grouping
Determining which elements are alike in some way
Inferring a pattern across a small set of elements.
Using general principles to explain particulars
Assembling elements into a new structure
Creating a brief, clear, and accurate description capturing the essence of a message.
Media literacy
Set of perspectives that we actively use to expose ourselves to the mass media to interpret the meaning of the messages we encounter.
Dimensions of Media literacy
1. Cognitive 2. Emotional 3. Aesthetic 4. Moral
Why is media literacy a continuum? Not a category.
Media literacy varies from person to person.
Information Processing Tasks
1. Filtering 2. Meaning Matching 3. Meaning Construction
Are you paying attention to a message?
Meaning Matching
Do you know what the message is?
Meaning Construction
Personal meaning.
Physically happens outside of human ability to see.
Physically able to notice, but you don't notice. (Inserting hidden words in commercials)
Exposure States
1. Automatic 2. Attentional 3. Transported 4. Self-Reflexive
Mass Audience
Heterogeneous, anonymous, no interaction among members, no social context. (started around WWI to understand propaganda)
Niche Audiences
1. Geographic 2. Demographic 3. Social Class 4. Geodemographic 5. Psychographic
VALS typology
There are THINKERS, ACHIEVERS, EXPERIENCERS, BELIEVERS, STRIVERS, and MAKERS. This is used to find a specific audience to market to a specific group.
Strategies for niche building
1. Appeal to existing needs 2. Cross-media promotion 3. Conditional audiences
Children as special audiences
THey are at a greater risk for media manipulation
4 Stages of Cognitive Development
1. Sensorimotor 2. Preoperational 3. Concrete Operational 4. Formal Operational 
Actively restricting what kids can/can't watch.
Observing media together.
5 Stages of Media Development
1. Innovation (Marketing/Technological) 2. Penetration (Public acceptance) 3. Peak 4. Decline (Other media takes its place) 5. Adaptation
Players in economic game
Consumers Advertisers Media Companies Media Employers
Return on Revenue
Profit after expenses / total profit
Return on Investment
profit after expenses / assets invested
Multiple revenue streams. Market across media
Scale Economies
As scale increases, profit increases. Product cost goes down.
Scope Economies
Achieved through multiproduct production
Expressive writing
Proven to make people feel better.
Magic window
How children see TV. We learn it is not real.
Constraints on coverage
1. Deadlines 2. Resource limitations 3. Geographical focus
Statistical and normative deviance
News covers things that are unusual.
Shift in journalistic priorities
From significance/proximity to conflict/appeal to emotions/ visualization
Degrees of Objectivity
Fabrication Bias Partial Story Context Balance
Agenda setting
News shapes perceptions of importance of social issues.
Cultivation hypothesis
Heavy viewers assume the TV world = real world.
Angle of story influences public reactions.
3 Major Dramas
Drama Comedy Romance
Constraints on TV
Compelling and simple. Prevent channel changing 
Federal Communications Commission guidelines. 6-10 pm restrictions.
Why do we stereotype?
People are cognitive misers
Simplified extended conflict
Drawing out conflict so people are more attached.

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