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Multi tasking
most people need to severely reduces productivity
The concept of being affected by external stimuli Studies show wording affects behavior
7 Skills
Synthesis Analysis Evaluation Grouping Induction Deduction
3 Information Processing Tasks
Filtering (ignore or attend to message) Meaning matching (existing knowledge) Meaning construction (existing abilities)
Subliminal v. subconscious
Subliminal- Beyond human perception Subconscious- goes unnoticed
Exposure states
Automatic Attentional Transported Self-reflexive
What is a mass audience?
Heterogeneous Anonymous No interaction among members No social context
5 types of Niche audience
Geographic Demographic Social Class GeoDemographic (Zip codes) Psychographic
3 strategies for building niches
Appeal to existing needs and interests cross-media promotion conditioning audiences
Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor stage (0-2) Preoperational stage (2-7) Concrete operational stage (7-12) Formal operational stage (12+)
Telecommunications act of 1996
All TVs should include a "V-chip"
3 advertiser regulations
Limited advertising time Initiate "bumpers" (5 sec segments) Prohibit host selling
restrictive (limiting amount of time on program) active (Discussing controversial content in real time)
Watching together
5 stages of media development
innovation penetration peak decline adaption
Indicators of peak
time spent with medium Money spent on medium
Never primary choice Specialization key for survival
Always emphasized localism peaked 30's and 40's lost advertisers to TV in 50's Adaption: Focus on mobility
historically political 1830s shift to mass profits>less political in 1900, 93% of homes subscribed to a newspaper Shrinking ad revenue, but healthy profits
Players in economic game
Consumers Advertisers Media employees
Consumption as power?
Gay marriage (Chik-Fil-A, Cinemark)
Above the line/below the line employees
ATL- Creative talent (actors, performers) BTL- Clinical work (Can be trained and replaced
Econ of sale:
producing an extra unit decreases as scale of output expands
Econ of Scope:
producing an extra unit decreases as scale of output expands
3 basic economic strategies
Max. profits by increasing revenue and decreasing expenses construct niche audiences and keep conditioning reduce risks using marketing concept
Expressive writing
ppl write in stream of consciousness (beneficial to health)
Dimensions of reality
you're fucked
next step reality
Reality TV
Uncanny valley
Humans like when things are real but once they get to a certain point we stop liking it
Agenda setting
The news shapes perceptions of the importance of social issues
Cultivation hypothesis
heavy viewers assume TV world=real world
the angle of a story influences public reactions
Journalists myst attract audiences, not offend sometimes stories=ads
inform v. entertain select market>identify wants>satisfy needs
News perspective
culture of journalism shift from significance, proximity, and timeliness to conflict, appeal to emotions, and visualization
Classic dramatic structure
Exposition Rising action Climax Falling action Denouncement
3 major genres and subgenres
Drama (Tragedy, mystery, action/horror) Comedy Romance
Constraints on TV
must be simple and compelling
Deceptive Health patterns in media
Food on TV is unhealthy but ppl r thin people dont suffer everyday health prelims are rare doctors overrepresented
Why do we stereotype?
Humans are cognitive misers
Dimensions of bigotry
Conscious bias group unconscious bias individual
Stereotype threat
being at risk of confirming as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group
minority members included in dominant group to perceive inclusiveness
approach to having multiple minority identities
4 stages of minority portrayal
nonrecognition ridicule regulation respect
How pervasive is advertising in the US?
300-1500 ads a day we feed the pervasiveness
Examples of Puffery in ads
pseudo claims comparison to unidentified other comparison to earlier form irrelevant comparison pseudo-survey juxtaposition
3 ways advertising is manipulative
exploits sexuality acts by activating our fears makes us feel we are lacking and reinforces self-doubt
Multi-dimensional media literacy
Cognitive Emotional Aesthetic Moral
Continuum v. categories
Continuum, not a category
Benefits of media literacy
Maintain better control over the media Increased appetite for media variety
3 basics lessons of interactive media
High levels of organizational resources Formation of collective identities Personalized content sharing (unique to digital media)
Corporate policies and activism
Policies that do not optimize user safety One size fits all policies may be misapplied to limit social movement May bend the will of something
Socially isolated people have...
more accidents a greater risk of disease a greater risk of developing psychiatric disorders Shorter lives
Social support is associated with biomarkers of health including...
more accidents greater risk of disease greater risk of developing psychiatric disorders shorter lives
4 unique aspects of online support
Social distance Anonymity Interaction management Access
Social networking site
Public display of connections is a crucial component of SNSs
Is social networking addictive?
Psychosocial Problems -> Low Social Competence -> Preference for Internet interaction -> Less Threatening/More efficacious -> Excessive, compulsive use of internet
Propaganda techniques
Euphemisms Plain Folks (play up with every day people) Bandwagon
Hypodermic needle theory
Media are all powerful Messages are like bullets
Independent vs. Dependent Variables
I: Variables that predict effects D: The effects themselves
6 Types of Effects
Cognitive (Factual, learning, immediate) Attitudinal (Not what but how we see things) Emotional (Immediate: Thrill, Long term: Desensitization) Physiological (Automatic physical reactions) Behavioral (What do people actually DO?) Macro (Effects of organizations and societ…
Manifest vs latent effects
Manifest: What we can observe Latent: What we can indirectly observe or what is "brewing slowy"
Early Campaign History
Early 1700’s, Cotton Mather used pamphlets and speeches to convince people that inoculation prevented spread of smallpox
First vs. second party entitlement
Primary stakeholders vs. secondary
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Central vs. peripheral processing
Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior
Social Learning Theory
Behavior change involves modeling of behavior by credible role models
Self-Efficacy Theory
Above the influence Jennifer Hudson for Weight Watchers
Localism vs. Efficiency
Localism: Assumes the individual should be prioritized over the interests of large organizations Telecommunications Act of 1996 led to mergers and increase in efficiency
Types of mergers
Horizontal Vertical Conglomerate (a media company buys non-media companies)
3 Types of privacy
Informational Accessibility Emotional
6 Types of Privacy Loss
Monitoring Selling information (cookies) Spam Identity Theft Hijacking Infecting
Conficker fakes and controller
249 fakes 1 controller (US gov. did nothing, destroyed itself on Ukranian cpus)
3rd person effect
"It's not affecting me but it is for everyone else"
BOBO experiment
Violent media creates violence in real life
Short-term and Long-term effects of media and violence
Behavioral: (ST) imitation and disinhibition (LT) training to kill Physiological: (ST) Fight or flight, excitation transfer (LT) Narcotizing Cognitive: (ST) Learning lessons (LT) Learning Norms
Violence as pro-social
o Realistic, offensive, graphic violence might have pro-social effects, versus violence as… § Heroic & Sterile § Honorable & Beautiful § Casual & Funny
Effects of IU study from 1980’s on attitudes about sex
o Less satisfaction with the affection, physical appearance, sexual curiosity, and sexual performance of their real-life partners o Lower evaluation of marriage and monogamy, less desire to have children, and greater acceptance of male dominance and female submission o Men and women…
Effects of 1995 study on sex and aggression
o Pictorial nudity… § Reduces aggression in viewers o Portrayals of nonviolent sexual behavior § Increases aggression in viewers o Portrayals of violent sexual behavior § Increases aggression in viewers EVEN MORE
2 Primary aims of media in politics
Inform and empower public participation in sociopolitical issues Represent all sides of an issue (Both the powerful and the weak)
Two-step Model
Media influences opinion leaders, who then influence the public
Spiral of Silence
1 opinion becomes dominant as others fear social repercussions (Typically in extreme circumstances, e.g. 9/11)
What do sports teach us, good and bad
The good: § Teamwork § Integrity § Leadership § Loyalty/Nationalism o The bad: § Violence, or how to go to war Potential issues: § Racism § Sexism
Role of Television Networks in Sports
Increase viewership make more dramatic and entertaining
$$ and Olympics
Costs money to host Olympics on broadcasting station Do it for cross-marketing

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