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The unequal distribution of valued goods and opportunities in society.
Structural Inequality
The bias that is built into the structure of organizations, institutions, governments, or social networks.
Collections of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations regarding one another's behavior. 
Social Stratification
The subfield of sociology that examines inequalities among individuals and groups.
5 Dimensions of Structural Inequality
1) Education 2) Spatial 3) Healthcare 4) Employment 5) Financial
A part of a city in which members of a minority group live, especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure. 
A term used to identify groups of people in similar social and economic positions who have similar...
4 Components of Class
Comprised of people sharing a similar economic situation who have: 1) Conflicting economic interests with other classes 2) Share similar life chances 3) Have similar attitudes & behaviors (Habitus) 4) Have the potential to engage in collective action.
The Marxian System
The Bourgeoisie: Those who owned the means of production. The Proletariat: Those who worked for the owners in return for pay
The Current System
Upper Class Middle Class Working Class
Upper Class
Those who own the means of production (top 1 t0 2%)
Middle Class
Between upper & lower; salary from $27,000-$250,000.
Working (Lower) Class
Sometimes associated with or distinguished from the lower class or poor.
Weber's Three-Component Theory of Stratification
Class (enduring), Status (Prestige), Power
Three Functions of Underclass Connotations
1) Institutional scapegoating 2) Power Shifting 3) Spatial Stigmatization 
Family of Orientation
The people linked to us by birth (parents, siblings)
Family of Procreation
The relatives we gain over the course of lives through marriage and childbearing (spouses, partners, children)
Line Marriage
A form of group marriage in which the family unit continues to ad new spouses of both sexes over time so that the marriage does not end.
The process through which individuals encounter and internalize norms, values, and world views through interaction with others.
Primary Socialization
Socialization that occurs early in a person's life, usually within the home.
Secondary Socialization
Socialization that occurs throughout one's life, usually outside the home, as individuals interact with peers, and institutions, such as school and the workplace.
Concerted Cultivation
A middle class parenting style that actively fosters and assesses children's a lents, opinions, and skills, resulting in an emerging sense of entitlement.
Accomplishment of Natural Growth
A parenting style common among the working class and poor wherein children are given the freedom to structure their own lives, often resulting in an emerging sense of constraint.
Socialization Theory
Education transmits knowledge, skills, and values that persist in adulthood and that employers believe increase productivity.
Allocation Theory
Education channels people in position or institutions that offer different opportunities or continuing to think, learn, and earn.Correspondence Principle
Correspondence Principle
Children receive different types of education based solely on their social standing rather than their inherent abilities. This serves to maintain class boundaries.
Educational Tracking
Separation of students into Persisting academic groups based on perceived ability.
Hidden Curriculum
The often unstated standards of behavior that teachers and administrators expect from children within the educational system. -These often unstated expectations may reflect the middle-class biases and norms of school professionals.
Whether a person is classified as male or female based on anatomical or chromosomal criteria Ex: Penis/vagina.
The ways that social forces create differences between men's and women's behavior, preferences, treatment, and opportunities, and the characteristics of men and women that reflect these forces
Sexual Orientation
Whether one sexual attractions are to members of the same sex, the other, or both.
The view that members of a group share a fundamental inherited, innate, and fixed quality or characteristics. ---Presumes that genders & races are natural grouping whose boundaries are determined by deep-seated and unchangeable traits that are found within each individual.
Hegomonic Masculinity
The culturally idealized form of manhood that reinforces the dominant social position of men, and the subordinate social position of women.
Discrimination or devaluation based on a persons gender, as in restricted job opportunities; especially such discrimination directed against women.
The Bechdel Test
1) Are there more than two women (named) characters in a film 2)Do they interact with each other 3)If they do, do they talk about something other than men.
Hostile Sexism
Reflects overtly negative evaluations and stereotypes about women.
Benevolent Sexism
Represents evaluations of women that may appear subjectively positive, but are actually damaging to women and gender equity more broadly.
Deceptive Distinctions
Those sex differences that arise out of the roles individuals occupy, rather than some innate force -Ex: Woman who is a nurse and she behaves in a nurturing way. 
Double Blind
A situation in which a person is faced with contradictory demands or expectations, so that any action taken will appear to be wrong.
Secret Tests:
Social Strategies that people use to acquire knowledge about the state of their romantic relationships ---Ex: Direct Questioning, Asking Third Parties, Trial Intimacy Moves, Taken for Granted Tests, Endurance Tests, Jealousy Tests, & Fidelity Checks.
4 Components of Emotion
1). Appraisals of a situational stimulus or context 2). Changes in physiology or bodily sensations 3). The free or inhibited display of expressive gestures 4). A Cultural label.
Includes the experience of physical drive states (ex: hunger, pain, etc.
Positive & Negative evaluations (liking/disliking) of an object, behavior, or idea.
More chronic emotional states, usually less intense, and less tightly tied to an eliciting situation.
Socially constructed patterns of sensations, expressive gestures, and cultural meanings organized around a relationship to a social object. -Ex: romantic love, parental love, loyalty -Also more transient, acute emotional responses to social losses (sorrow, envy) and gains (pride, grati…
Feeling Rules
Reliefs about the appropriate range, intensity, duration, and targets of private feelings in given situations.
Emotion Work (Management)
Inducing or inhibiting feelings so as to render them "appropriate" to a situation. 
Emotional Labor
A form or emotion regulation that creates a publicly visible facial and bodily display. (Specifically in a job context).
-The character or quality of being sexual - Sexual behavior, desires, and fantasies the things people actually do as well as the things we think or dream about doing.
A socially acknowledged erotic relationship between an adult male and a younger male usually in his teens
The lack of sexual attraction, or low or absent interest in sexual activity.
Sexual Response Cycle
1). Appetitive Phase 2). Excitement Phase 3). Orgasm Phase 4). Resolution Phase
Sex in Sociology: Sexual Scripts
1). Cultural Scenarios-> 2). Interpersonal Scripts->Ways we talk about sex w/ people 3). Intra-Psychic Scripts-> Feelings and thoughts about sex. 
A system for classifying people who are believed to share common descent, based on perceived innate physical similarities
A socially defined category of people who identity with each other based on a shared social experience or ancestry. 
A person who is perceived to be primitive or uncivilized. Comes from the greek "barbaros," which mimics the way they say foreign languages as sounding
Prejudice against individuals who are members of particular racial or ethnic group, often drawing on negative stereotypes about the group
Negative beliefs or attitudes held about entire groups
Behavior that harms, excludes, or disadvantages individuals on the basis of their group membership.
Individual Level of Racism
Internal- Things inside Interpersonal- Racism through interactions with someone
Systematic Level of Racism
Institutional- Single institution; policies Structural- All the institutions put together; culture
-Sets of beliefs, symbols, and practices about the reality of the super empirical order that make claims to organize and guide human life. -A unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say apart and forbidden, beliefs and practices which unite into one …
The 3 B's
Belief, Behavior, Belonging
Religious Organizational Structure
Churches, Sects, Denominations, Cults
Fundamentalist Religion
Barrier between themselves and the world.
Evangelical Religion
Go out and bring people into the fold/spread word
Those things that are worthy of awe and special treatment and are not mundane or everyday parts of life.
Things not devoted to holy or religious purposes unconsecrated; secular
Contemptus Mund
"To hold this world in Contempt"
-An individual's fundamental assumption about how the universe works, it's purpose, and it's order -The socially established Nomos [is] a shield against terror. Put differently, the most important function of society is nomization.
3 Stages of Belief
Doxa- Old Orthodoxy- Return to old Heterodoxy- Change to new 
Social Control
The formal and informal mechanisms used to increase conformity
Utilitarianism (Deterrence: Looking to the future)
Theory of punishment that relies on treat of harsh punishment to discourage people from committing crimes. 
Retributivism (retribution: Backward Looking)
Theory of punishment that emphasizes moral condemnation for crimes already committed.
A behavior, trait, or belief that departs from a norm and generates a negative reaction in a particular group.
The violation of a norm that has been codified into law. 
Four types of Crime
1). Violent Crime 2). Property Crime 3). White Collar Crime 4). Drug Crime 
Structural Strain Theory
Theory -States that there are goals in our society that people want to achieve, but they cannot always reach these goals. This creates stress (or strain) -Means / Goal box of accepting or rejecting
Differential Association Theory
States that we learn deviance from hanging around deviant peers
Labeling Theory
-States that deviance is caused by external judgments (labels) that change a person's self-concept and the way that others respond to that person. -Label encourages our behavior

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