Front Back
Most research is done by
experiments
self-awareness blossoms at age of
two
correlation does not equal
causation
attribution
a causal explanation
mental load
increases the persuasive impact of peripheral cues in a persuasive message
Two problems with contact hypothesis, which is one of them?
contact is often negative
which of the following conclusions is most accurate regarding research on violence in the mass media and aggression?
it has shown that violent media can cause aggression
according to the textbook, how universal is human aggression, and how universal are laws against it?
people were aggressive everywhere, and virtually all known human societies have laws against aggression
most human seek out social acceptance and are highly distressed by social rejection. how do they compare to non-human animals?
non-human animals similarly seek out social acceptance and are highly distressed by social rejection
suppose Daniel has just begun college. Which of his actions best exemplifies the need to belong?
Goes to parties and social functions so that he can meet new friends, and perhaps a girlfriend
Chris and David are both happily married, Chris looks around though when he's out. Does this mean that Chris' marriage is less likely to last than David's?
Yes. the more time people spend looking at other prospects the more likely the relationship is doomed
publicly acting in accord with a request, even if one privately disagrees is called
compliance
people tend to attribute their own behaviors to situational factors, but to attribute other's behaviors to dispositional factors. This is known as
actor-observer effect
Which of the following factors increases the persuasive impact of peripheral cues in a persuasive message
mental load
How is passion related to intimacy?
Increase in intimacy leads to more passion
attitudes
favorable or unfavorable evaluation of someone or something
attitudes may influence
behavior
LaPierre's travel study with the Chinese couple in the 1930s
attitudes do not always predict behavior
Attitudes predict behavior concerning
-aspects of situation -aspects of attitude
aspects of attitude, regarding whether attitudes predict behavior, consist of
strength, origin, and specificity of attitude
explicit attitudes
conscious, measured by self-report
implicit attitudes
not conscious, cannot be measured by self-report
Aggression
behavior that intends to hurt others
Sub-categories of aggression
-Anti-social v. pro-social -Physical v. nonphysical
Four methods of assessing aggression in the lab
-observation -shock-learning -hot sauce -noise-competition task
Biological, Instinct Theory of Aggression
Freud, unlearned and universal, urge to aggress builds over time and has to come out -catharsis
Biological, Evolution theory of aggression
Aggression exists because it helped our ancestors survive and reproduce
Biological, biochemistry theory of aggression
testosterone
Frustration-Aggression Theory
goals are blocked or removed, increases aggression, displacement
Social Learning Theory of Aggression
imitation, bobo doll study (Bandura)
Aggressive children tend to have physically
punitive parents
Child abuse does not guarantee that a child will
grow up to be an abuser, but 30% do later abuse their own children
Friends/ relationships influenced by where we
live, work, sit in class *functional distance is the key!*
Westgate West Floor Plan
residents who lived by stairwells were most popular
mere exposure effect
familiarity breeds liking
limitations of mere exposure effect
-liking at first exposure -if you don't like it at first, you might not like it -overexposure
"Welcome Week" study (1966), only descriptor that mattered toward students wanting to see each other again
attractiveness
attractiveness stereotype
what is beautiful is good
good looking people do not have
higher self-esteem, higher intelligence, or healthier personalities
good looking people do have more
friends, romantic opportunities, and active sex life
White t-shirt study is an example of
symmetry being considered attractive
Symmetry is attractive because it is associated with
good health; resistance to pathogens
More 'revealing' and 'sexy' clothing is chosen for a social gathering by a
woman at high fertility
Standards of beauty vary
across culture
some things are attractive across cultures
waist-hip ratio signs of good health
least coercive type of social influence
conformity
most coercive kind of social influence
obedience
three types of social influence
conformity, compliance, obedience
conformity
change in behavior or belief as result of real or imagined group norms
explicit norms of conformity
fully expressed, written, easy to recognize
implicit norms in conformity
observable patterns of behavior exhibited by group members
people conform out of -- and ---
-desire to be accepted, correct -to avoid rejection and isolation
Solomon Asch's line judging experiments in the 1950s
wanted to show that emphasis on conformity was overblown -when alone, 99% correct -in group, 76% conformed at least once -most students did not conform most of the time
increasing group size up to 4 or so
increases conformity
presence of just 1 dissenter
reduces conformity
Normative Social Influence is especially likely when
group is unanimous, group members are admired/attractive, group is large
Informational Social Influence
people conform out of a desire to be correct
Often what seems like individuality is just conformity
to fringe groups
optimal distinctiveness is a compromise
between extreme conformity and extreme uniqueness
Cialdini's 6 Principles of Compliance
-Friendship -Reciprocity Rule -Scarcity Principle -Social Validation -Authority -Consistency
Bystander Effect
less likely to help as #s increase
Diffusion of responsibility in an emergency
more people around, less anyone of them feels responsible
We help those we like, this is based on
similarity and attractiveness
Good Samaritan Study
their time strain affected if they stopped or not
Increase helping by
-reduce ambiguity -induce guilt -learning about helping
Prosocial behavior
any action intended to benefit another (regardless of motive) ex: large tip to impress date
Pure Altruism behavior
Benefits another intentionally for no external or internal reward -ex: saving a stranger from the jaws of a crocodile
Women desire men with slightly above average IQs for
a single date
Women desire more IQ as
commitment increases
Men also desire a partner with an above average IQ for a
single date
Men's IQ criteria is considerably lower for
sexual partners and one-night stands
women become more selective as
intensity of commitment and probability of pregnancy increases
men become more selective as ----, but
intensity of commitment increases, less selective for "low investment" mating
Men and women differ in their
Men and women differ in their
Men and women have similar criteria
for long-term partners
Sternberg's Triangle Theory of Love
passion, intimacy, commitment
passion
attraction, desire, pure emotion, hot
intimacy
closeness, bonding, emotional investment, 'warm'
commitment
conscious decision, short v. long term, cool
intimacy is an example of ___ love
companionate love -mutual love or liking, intertwined lives
women disclose in --- more
women
men disclose in --- more
women
commitment
want to commit, ought to commit, have to commit
intimacy is a result of
disclosure
as disclosure fades, novelty is lost so
passion subsides
passion equates to changes in
intimacy over time
personality pitfalls
-low self-esteem --> distrust -narcissism
women tend to be more concerned than men about
intimacy and friendship
men are more concerned about
playful and physical aspects
men tend to fall in love
more readily
men also fall out of love
more slowly
Stanley Milgram's obedience study found that
65% shocked to the end, even those that protested

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