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Essential Nutrients
Amino Acids Fatty Acids Vitamins Minerals
Essential Amino Acids
Eight for adults Animals = complete source Required for Immune system
Vitamins
Water-soluble Fat soluble - can accumulate to toxic levels
Minerals
Require large amounts
Alimentary canal
ingestion -> digestion -> absorption -> elimination
Peristalsis
involuntary moves food through digestive tract
Salivary glands
Salivary amylase - begins chemical digestion Mucin - slippery glycoprotein Buffers - prevent tooth decay
Mumps
viral infection primary parotid
Esophagus
10 inch tube to stomach
Parietal Cells
secrete HCL Intrinsi factor for vitamin B12 absorption
Chief cells
secrete pepsinogen HCL converts some to pepsin
Chyme
ingested food an gastric juice
Pyloric sphincter
stomach to small intetstine - prevents small intestine overload
Where does Complete Digestion and Absorption of Nutrients Occur?
Small Intestine - complete digestion into monomers
Duodenum
mixes chyme with secretions from: pancreas liver wall of duodenum
Pancreas
Alkaline secretions Digestive enzymes: amylases, proteases, nucleases and lipases
Liver
Bile - emulsifies, stored in gallbladder Gallstones - crystallization of cholesterol Too much cholesterol
Gastrin
released from stomach causes more gastric juices to be released inhibited by low pH
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
release triggered by f.a and a.a. Stimulates release of pancreatic enzymes and bile Inhibits acid release by stomach
Secretin
release triggered by acid stimulates pancreas to release bicarbonate inhuition of stomach
Epithelial transport
Passive - down concentration gradient Active - can absorb greater amount amino acids, small peptides, vitamins, glucose
Small Intestine Blood Flow
Directly to liver to remove toxic substances and regulate nutrient balances
Fat Absorption
Trlglyceride breakdown -> diffusion -> reformed triglycerides
Triglyceride Degradation
fatty acids monoglycerides
Chhylomicron
water soluble globules triglycerides coated with cholesterol, phospholipis and proteins
Large Intestine
Elimination of undigested semi-solid waste Rich flora of bacteria generate gases, vitamins B and K
Extra Calories
Liver and muscles (glycogen) Fat
Utilization of Fat Storages
Liver Glycogen -> Muscle Glycogen -> Fat
Obesity
Contributes to: Type 2 diabetes Colon cancer Breast cancer Cardiovascular disease
Hormonal satiety surpressants
Leptin - fat tissue secretion CCK and gastric distention Insulin
Appetit stimulant
Ghrelin - secreted by stomach Innervates hypothalamus

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