Purdue PSY 23500 - Chapter 9 Child Psychology

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IQ Test, aka Stanford-Binet Intelligence Quota Test = mental age / actual age * 100IQ of 130 or more is gifted, IQ of 70 or less is disabledRobert Sternberg’s three types of intelligence:a. Convergent / analytical / crystallized thinking = arriving at one right answer. We testthese with multiple choice testsb. Practical / contextual thinking = applying this knowledge to the real worldc. Divergent / creative / fluid thinking = coming up with many different ideas. We testthese with RAT (random assortment tests).1. We also call this brainstorming2. Evaluation is listed at the top of Benjamin Bloom’s educational taxonomybecause true genius involves having to reject bad ideas instead of just pickinggood ideas3. Productivity and creativity are linked. Extremely creative individuals are also justreally productive, which allows them to both hone their skills and just get luckymore oftenHoward Gardner expanded on this with 9 types of intelligence1. Musical2. Visual-Spatial3. Verbal4. Logical-Mathematical5. Kinesthetic6. Intrapersonal7. Interpersonal8. Naturalistic9. ExistentialistSpearman’s g / general intelligence is often used as a refutation to Gardner’s theory: thepeople who naturally excel in multiple things. Another refutation is the Flynn Effect, the fact thattest scores go up with each yearBayley Scales of Infant Development (1 to 42 months), though this doesn’t really translatesuper well to adult intelligence● Cognitive● Language● Motor● Socio-Emotional● AdaptiveWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (ages 6 to 16) and Wechsler Preschool andPrimary Scale of Intelligence (ages 2 to 7) are similar to IQ test, but with nonverbalperformance measuresKids who are late talkers fall into two categories1. People who are just fine as adult talkers. Maybe they’re late talkers because they’reuncomfortable, or have trouble relating to others, etc.2. People who have genuine learning disabilities / mental conditionsWith intelligence tests, we often have problems with them because they1. Might not be valid even if they are reliable2. Might get different scores if the language it’s given in is not the test taker's first languageWhen tests are not valid1. You didn’t study for it (or you didn’t do the right thing)2. How long it takes to process test information (might be related to language)3. Hungry4. Tired5. Self-fulfilling prophecies can play a role. This can be influenced by stereotypes aboutgender, race and ethnic groups9 biases for us to know about:1. Anchoring (also known as focalism or the focusing effect) - we tend to place too muchimportance (anchor) on one piece of information, disregarding other factors.2. Availability heuristic (also known as fluency) - we tend to think something is true ormore common just because of how easy it is to come up with a salient example.3. Hyperbolic Discounting (also known as the present bias) - When you believe you willmake better choices in the future, but never do in the moment (due to immediaterewards).4. IKEA effect - when you value something you put together more than actual quality.5. Loss aversion (also known as sunk cost effect) - it is harder to give up on somethingthat you've already acquired or spent significant time and money on already.6. Mere exposure effect - you like something simply because it is familiar.7. Normalcy Bias (also known as the Black Swan Effect) - failing to plan for somethingwhich has never happened before.8. Optimism bias (also known as wishful thinking or positive outcome bias) - A tendency tooverestimate the likelihood of favorable outcomes. Eg. - "So you're saying there's achance?"9. Zero-sum bias - A tendency to assume that for you to succeed someone else must fail -that the task is a "zero-sum"

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Purdue PSY 23500 - Chapter 9 Child Psychology

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