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Purdue PSY 23500 - Chapter 12 Child Psychology

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There are two different axes that determine parental styles:● Uninvolved: not warm and not controlling. Their children tend to be neglected, andSocial Services often gets involved● Authoritative: warm and controlling. Their children tend to be the healthiest, beingsimultaneously independent but also willing to get help if they need to● Authoritarian: not warm but controlling. Their children tend to be average, but in somecases, the child will become rebellious and undisciplined as soon as they move out● Indulgent-Permissive: warm but not controlling. Their children are impulsive, easilyfrustrated and have no self-controlChildren can learn in a few ways:1. Direct Instruction is just telling the kid what to do2. Conditioning involves pairing together an unconditioned stimulus (which produces anunconditioned response) and a conditioned stimulus (which initially has no effect). Intime, the conditioned stimulus alone leads to the unconditioned response, which is nowtermed the “conditioned response”3. Punishment and Reinforcement. However, Reinforcement is often stronger thanPunishment because rewards are stronger. This can lead to the negativereinforcement trap, when children are rewarded for bad behavior4. Direct Observation, and as the Bobo Doll Study demonstrated, children are morelikely to imitate what they observed if it was someone they respected and they think thecourse of action will be helpful (which Bandura called self-efficacy)a. Counterimitation is the only exception: a child is unlikely to do something if theysaw another child do the same thing and get punished, even if an adult is alsodoing it unpunishedIf punishment proves ineffective, it can often lead to abuse.Divorce also leads to worse behaviors in children. This is because it results in a loss of a rolemodel. With that being said, stepparents who genuinely want to be parents and are high inwarmth can lead to good results again, for the same reason that adoptive parents producebetter kids than foster parents. (It’s all about the presence of an active role model who genuinelywants to be a parent.)Self-control is a valuable skill that can lead to improvements later in life. It can be depleted,strengthened and restored. For parents, this means that they can increase self-control byrewarding good behavior when they see it instead of just expecting it to happen. Specifically,they can use dispositional praise, which links the praise to the child’s sense of self; but makesure to praise the effort, not the talent, as praising talent can lead to obstacles feeling harderthan


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