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Purdue PSY 23500 - Lecture notes

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•Common across cultures.•3 components: feeling, physiology, behavior. •happiness, sadness, anger, fear •Good for you, good for babies: reciprocated.Basic Emotions•2 months--social smiles•4 months--laughter, first to physical states and later psychological states (unfamiliar)Happiness•6 months -- stranger wariness•Is good!•Preschool -- dark, imaginary creatures, etc.•School phobia•Systematic desentization.Fear•How does the child react to the stranger?•Fear can be shown in different ways.Stranger Anxiety•Guilt, embarrassment, and pride•Don’t emerge until 18-24 months,•depend upon cognitive development.•Also called self-conscious•linked to social standards•Situations of expression differ across cultures (and context).Complex Emotions•6 months - distinguish and match emotions.•1 year - Social referencing.•Look at parent for guidance.•Preschool children understand links between emotions and behavior.•If you are happy, will look!•If you are scared, nope.Recognizing and Using Others EmotionsRecognizing and Using Others Emotions•Even infants (4 months) regulate emotions (looking away when afraid) but older children know more ways to regulate emotions. • Display rules - standards for expressing emotions.•Don’t laugh when someone hurts themselves. (at least not out loud).•Don’t get visibly angry when your Boss yells.Regulating Emotions •When children don’t regulate emotions well, they typically have trouble interacting with peers.•Holds for anger.•But also worry and sadness.Poor regulations, bad friends •Consistent mood or style of behavior, like personality •Thomas & Chess (1968) •Easy•Difficult•“Slow to warm-up”What Is Temperament? •Positive affect•Persistence•Activity level•Inhibition•Negative affectFive Dimensions•Twin studies show genetic influence (.72 for activity and similar for shy, persistence, and anger).•Children are more likely to have difficult temperaments when mothers are abrupt and lack confidence.•European babies are babies when it comes to shots, unlike Chinese and Japanese infants..Hereditary and Environmental Contributions to Temperament•Temperament is somewhat stable throughout infancy and childhood.•Active fetus will be a handful! (DiPietro et al., 1996)•Inhibited 2-year-olds are shy 4-year-olds•Difficult temperaments are especially stable.•Evocative gene environment relation.•If mom (or dad) couldn’t control them,•Grow up out of control.Stability of Temperament•Looked at correlation with adult behavior.•Irritability (.38)•Sluggishness (.25)•Approach (.18)•Distractibility (.21)•Not very big correlation. •But still in right direction.•So we can change over time.New Zealand Study of Temperament• Behavioral problems - difficult 2/3rd had it.• School success - Persistent children.• Peer interactions - Shy is bad.• Depression - Anger linked to depression.Temperament is linked to...•I’m stuck to you!•Social-emotional relationship.•Strong survival value.•Ethological view.•Attachment figure is “stable social-emotional base”Attachment•Relies upon infant’s growing perceptual and cognitive skills.• Baby has to tell the difference first.•By about 7 months, have identified a single attachment figure.•Usually mom, but can be dad. •Care vs. play.Growth of Attachment•Baby & Mom in playroom for 3 minutes.•Stranger enters.•1 minute later mommy leaves.•3 minutes later returns.•When baby is happy: “Bye, Bye!”•3 minutes later returns.Strange Situation• Secure•Baby wants to be with mom, but doesn’t freak if she’s gone, and can be comforted (60-65%).• Insecure– Avoidant: Not upset and ignores (20%).– Resistant: Upset and stays that way (10-15%)– Disorganized: Huh? What the..? (5-10%)Ainsworth 1978: Quality of Attachment• More secure linked to: •better friends and fewer conflicts (Lieberman, Doyle, Markiewicz, 1999)•Less behavior problems in school. Carlson, 1998).•Succeed at summer camp. (Elicker, Englund & Sroufe, 1992)Consequences of attachment•You make your child secure by…•Sensitivity•Positive attitude•Synchrony•Mutuality•Support•Stimulation •(attend to infant frequently)Ainsworth’s Caregiving Hypothesis•Interaction between parent and baby. (Israel study). • Predictable response:Immediate & Appropriate.• Internal working model - expectations about what parents are good for.Factors determining quality of attachmentKidAdultSecure = SecureAvoidant = DismissiveResistant = PreoccupiedIWM leads to… •Secure adults - objective and value parent-child relationships.•Dismissive adults - parents were great, but they didn’t make me who I am.•Preoccupied adults - describe childhood experiences emotionally with anger or confusion.IWM leads


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