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Purdue PSY 23500 - Chapter 8 Child Psychology

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Jean Piaget came up with his stages of development theory, based on the idea of assimilationand accommodation● Sensorimotor stage (birth - 18 months) is where children only use their senses tonavigate the world. As a result, objects that are out of sight are out of mind (objectpermanence, or a lack thereof)a. They are conducting experiments, or what Piaget calls schemes● Preoperational stage (18 months - 7 years of age) is where children are learninglanguage and no longer relying on their senses as much. They can understand symbolsand communicate more elegantly, but they can’t usually apply those symbolsthemselves.a. They are egocentric: they literally can’t comprehend a larger world beyond whatthey’re seeingb. Children are flabbergasted when things change because they are so focused onhow they are in the present, which Piaget calls centrationc. Conservation tests = pouring water into different containers and asking childrenwhich is bigger● Concrete operational stage (7 - 11 years) is where children can solve conservationtests because they can picture the reversibility of the situation. They can apply, but theycan’t see the larger picture.● Formal operational stage (11 years - adulthood) is where children can imaginecomplex, hypothetical situations. Finally, they see how things are connected.Piaget was describing the 10 year process of becoming an expert on life!While Piaget was mostly right, there were some things he got wrong.❖ He thought that each stage was a mental reorganization of the brain, but children can betaught different behaviors from each stage without drastically altering their thoughtpatterns❖ Older children sometimes revert if they are tired or distracted❖ Children know more than what he thought❖ Sometimes children can do one version of a task but not other versions❖ Assimilation and Accommodation are really vague mechanismsLev Vygotsky discussed the importance of social and cultural factors on development.Specifically, he discussed the zone of proximal development, which refers to tasks thatchildren can do but only with the help of an adult (that help is called scaffolding); these taskspush us to grow, develop our skills and apply them.In Jermone Bruner’s Social Cognitive Theory, anyone can learn anything if the properteaching method is applied and there aren’t strict “stages” we operate in. Children progress from● Enactive learning (moving through the world without understanding)● Iconic learning (moving through the world with internal “icons” about different things)● Symbolic learning (understanding the full meaning of the world)Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy of education1. Knowledge of basic terms and concepts (recognize)2. Comprehension3. Application4. Analysis (which can include definition and calculation)5. Synthesize their own theories of the world with what they already know6. Evaluate their theoriesThe peak shift effect describes how we can recognize caricatures as people: our mindsaverage out the


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