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Purdue PSY 23500 - Chapter 11 Child Psychology

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Emotions are tough to define, but generally a combination of physiological changes, behaviorand feelings.When we say basic emotions we refer to sadness, fear, happiness, that sort of thing. As youngas 6 months, children are showing primitive emotions like fear, specifically stranger wariness,which is good!● Systematic desensitization: A way to cure phobias by gradually exposing them untiltheir fears are no longer aroused.Complex emotions like pride, embarrassment and guilt emerge at about 18-24 months. Theseemotions lead to what we term as self-consciousness. Unlike basic emotions, these complexemotions vary wildly by culture and societies.Children who can self-soothe (calm themselves down when no one else is around) do muchbetter than children who cannot self-sootheRecognizing and using others emotions is called social referencing. It’s a way for children tofigure out what to do by gauging the reactions of the people around them, and it’s a skill thatemerges at about 1 year of age. It’s why children are often scared of school if their parents arealso nervous about them leaving for school.Three theories of emotion● Facial-Feedback Hypothesis: smiling might make you happy● James-Lange theory: body reaction drives emotions● Cannon-Bard theory: body reaction and emotional experience are independent● Schachter-Singer theory: we have a bodily reaction, and then our assessment of thatbodily reaction drives the emotional experienceMisattribution of arousal is an idea that supports the James-Lange and Schachter-Singertheories. For example, when someone gets excited because they walked across a bridge, thenthey see someone, and their excitement makes them report the person as being more attractivethan usualTemperament refers to consistent mood, style of behavior and personality. This temperament isvery resilient, no matter the environment they are in● Easy● Difficult● Slow-to-warm upThese temperaments eventually give rise to personality. The big five factors of personality are:1. Open2. Agreeable3. Neurotic4. Extraverted5. ConscientiousAttachment styles for children1. Secture2. Insecurea. Resistantb. Avoidantc. Disorganized (miscellaneous)Ainsworth’s Caregiving Hypothesis says that you can make your child more secure by beingsensitive to their needs, having a positive attitude, supporting them, being emotionally open andintimate with them, and having a reciprocal relationship that feels more like equals. Plus, amajor factor determining security for the child (and by extension attachment) is predictability,which seems to indicate kids have an inner working model of life and


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