Purdue PSY 23500 - Chapter 10 Child Psych Notes

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Baddley’s Information Flow describes the world, information and memory in 3 main things:● Sensory memory holds raw sensory input● Short-term / primary / working memory processes and holds information for severalseconds. This gets better with age● Long-term memory is vast and relatively permanentThis flow corresponds to the three main processes of memory1. Encoding = noticing something and sending it from sensory to short-term memory2. Storage = using organizational methods, taking things from short-term memory andputting them in long-term memory3. Retrieval = pulling stuff out of long-term memoryMetacognition = executive control processes involved in planning and monitoring what isattended to and what is done with memory input. Basically it is “thinking about thinking.”Babies forget and can be prompted to remember forgotten material● 2 month olds: can remember 1-3 days ago● 6 month olds: can remember 15-16 days agoHowever, this is a very fragile window of time. For example, a 6 month old might not remembersomething that happened yesterday if the environment has changed in some significant wayCarolyn Rovee-Collier demonstrated the saving effect: it is easier for infants to learn somethingif they learned (and forgot) it, then if they never learned it at allFuzzy-Trace Theory: People encode experiences on a continuum, ranging from crystal clear tovague and unclear. We use the phrase “fuzzy” to refer to memories where we remember thebasic gist of what happened, but notThree strategies we use to boost memory:● Rehearsal: repeating things to remember them better. 3-4 year olds rarely rehearse sothey rarely remember verbal information. 7-10 year olds rehearse a lot more and do itmore efficiently, so it’s a lot easier to get them to remember stuff● Organization: Is used by 9-10 year olds to help them keep everything together. Involvesarranging information into chunks● Elaboration: Rarely used before adolescence. By adding more details you remember iteasierHowever, these strategies can lead to stereotyping, ignoring atypical outliers, and creating falsememories. That’s because memories are gist based: we don’t remember everything in crystalclear detail, we just know the general “gist” of a memoryChildren have an autobiographical memory that keeps track of information in their own life.This makes them particularly susceptible to false memories if someone else suggestssomething.● Children’s scripted memory is one type of this that begins at age 2. The “script” isessentially a routine for how things are supposed to go: meal time, bed time, bathtime,and more. The script is concrete enough that it overrides small discrepancies. (IE bathtime still happens even if they’re missing their rubber duck.)------------------------------Reading requires a few things1. It starts with knowing letters and reading sounds (phonological awareness)2. Then the children have to know the connection between sound and meaning (decoding)3. Finally, we have to recognize the whole word (whole word recognition). This might bedifferent if certain characters are used for a whole word, which we call logographicsystems4. Familiarity and context boost the speed of all of these thingsIn counting (just as in reading), children must associate digits with quantities and evenremember the order in which those numbers should appear. Unfortunately, children aren’tperfect—at first. Early counting shows a one-to-one principle whereby children ages 3 and 4will say numbers for each object but are quite creative with the order. After children develop thestable order principle, they have difficulty understanding the importance of the final number ina count, but sometime around 4 to 5 years of age they understand the cardinalityprinciple—that the last number is the number of objects. This is when formal mathunderstanding begins and children can start to do mental arithmetic. Mental arithmetic isinitially counting based whereby children literally count all objects or count up from the firstamount. Later, similar to how reading goes from sounding out to whole-word recognition, mentalarithmetic is based on fact retrieval.Why do children fail at tasks● Fail to encode all of the information (centration)● Fail to know essential facts● Confuse informationWhy do children succeed at tasks● Know heuristics● Means-end analysisLearning disabilities include dyslexia (difficulty with reading), dysgraphia (trouble withhandwriting), dyscalculia (difficulty with learning math and math facts)Children have difficulty transferring skills from different areas of

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Purdue PSY 23500 - Chapter 10 Child Psych Notes

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