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HLTH 354: CHAPTER 8 THE BLOOD AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS WORD ROOTS OF THE HEMATOLOGICAL SYSTEM Blood has three main types of cells (cytes). RBC (erythrocytes), WBC (leukocytes) & Platelets (thrombocytes) WORD ROOT EXAMPLES NOTES BLOOD coagulation coagul/o anticoagulant, coagulopathy Coagulo refers to the blood’s ability to form clots. It comes from a Latin word, coagulum, which comes from the world of cheese making. clot thromb/o thrombocyte, thrombosis The bloodS ability to clot can be both lifesaving & life threatening. When the body is wounded, clotting enables the body to stop bleeding & begin the healing process. blood hem/o, hemat/o hemolysis, hematology The average-sized man has almost 6 quarts of blood in his body. The average-sized woman has almost 4 quarts. cell cyt/o erythrocyte, thrombocytosis Cyto comes from a Greek word meaning jar or basket white leuk/o leukocytes, leukemia Leukocytes, which are white blood cells, act as the bloodstream’s police force and garbage collectors. vein phleb/o, ven/o phlebotomy, venospasm The term phlebotomy comes from phlebo (vein) and tomy (incision). LYMPHATIC SYSTEM lymph lymph/o lymphadenitis, lymphoma Lymph comes from a Latin word meaning "water" or "spring" and refers to a clear liquid that circulates in the body, providing nutrients to cells and removing waste from them. bone marrow, spine myel/o myelitis, myelodysplasia This root comes from a Greek word meaning "the innermost part" and is used in medicine to refer to two different things: bone marrow and the spinal cord. blood condition -emia anemia, leukemia -emia comes from a combination of hemo, meaning "blood," and -ia, meaning "condition.” tonsils tonsill/o tonsillitis, tonsillectomy The tonsils are masses of lymphoid tissue located in the back of the mouth at the top of the throat. The word tonsil comes from the Latin word meaning "almond," no doubt because of its appearance. spleen splen/o splenomegaly, splenectomy The spleen is an organ in the upper-left portion of your abdomen. One of its jobs is to filter old red blood cells out of your blood. thymus thym/o thymoma, thymectomy The thymus is an organ found at the base of the neck. Its name is derived from the herb thyme. immune system immun/o immunology, immunoglobulin The immune system is the body’s defensive system against foreign invaders. deficiency -penia cytopenia -penia comes from a Greek word meaning "poverty" or "famine."SUBJECTIVE Patient History, Problems, Complaints BLOOD Term Definition Word Analysis anemia ah-NEE-mee-ah reduction of red blood cells noticed by the patient as weakness and fatigue an / emia no / blood condition ecchymosis eh-kih-MOH-sis large bruise from Greek, for "to pour out" hematoma HEE-mah-TOH-mah mass of blood within an organ, cavity, or tissue hemat / oma blood / tumor hemophilia HEE-moh-FEE-lee-ah condition in which the blood doesn’t clot, thus causing excessive bleeding hemo / phil / ia blood / love / condition hemorrhage HEM-oh-RIJ excessive blood loss hemo / rrhage blood / burst forth petechia puh-TEE-kee-yah small bruise from Latin, for "freckle" or "spot" reperfusion injury REE-pir-FYOO-zhun IN-jir-ee injury to tissue that occurs after blood flow is restored re / per / fusion injury again/ through/pour LYMPH Term Definition Word Analysis lymphadenopathy lim-FAD-eh-NAW-pah-thee any disease of a lymph gland (node);used to refer to noticeably swollen lymph nodes,especially in neck lymph / adeno / pathy lymph / gland /disease lymphedema LIMF-ah-DEE-mah swelling caused by abnormal accumulation of lymph, usually in the extremities lymph / edema lymph / swelling splenalgia splee-NAL-jah pain in the spleen splen / algia spleen / pain splenodynia SPLEE-noh-DAI-nee-ah pain in the spleen spleno / dynia spleen / painOBJECTIVE Observation and Discovery BLOOD Term Definition Word Analysis anisocytosis AN-ai-soh-SAI-toh-sis condition characterized by a great inequality in the size of red blood cells an / iso cyt / osis not / equal cell / condition elliptocyte ee-LIP-toh-SAIT oval red blood cells ellipto / cyte oval-shaped / cell elliptocytosis ee-LIP-toh-SAI-toh-sis condition characterized by an increase in the number of oval-shaped red blood cells ellipto / cyt / osis oval-shaped / cell / condition embolism EM-boh-LIZ-um blockage in a blood vessel caused by an embolus embol / ism embolus / condition embolus EM-boh-lus mass of matter present in the blood em / bolus in / throw erythrocyte eh-RIH-throh-SAIT red blood cell erythro / cyte red / cell erythrocytosis eh-RIH-throh-sai-TOH-sis abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells erythro / cyt / osis red / cell / condition hematopoiesis heh-MAH-toh-poh-EE-sis formation of blood cells hemato / poiesis blood / formation hemolysis hee-MAW-lih-sis breakdown of blood cells hemo / lysis blood / breakdown leukocyte LOO-koh-sait white blood cell leuko / cyte white / cell leukocytosis LOO-koh-sai-TOH-sis increase in the number of white blood cells leuko / cyt / osis white / cell / condition leukopenia LOO-koh-PEE-nee-ah deficiency in white blood cells leuko / penia white / deficiency macrocytosis MAH-kroh-sai-TOH-sis condition characterized by large red blood cells macro / cyt / osis large / cell / condition microcytosis MAI-kroh-sai-TOH-sis condition characterized by small red blood cells micro / cyt / osis small / cell / condition myelopoiesis MAI-eh-loh-poh-EE-sis formation of bone marrow myelo / poiesis bone marrow / formation neutropenia NOO-troh-PEE-nee-ah deficiency in neutrophil neutro / penia neutrophil / deficiency normocyte NOR-moh-sait normal-sized red blood cell normo / cyte normal / cell oligocythemia AW-lih-goh-sih-THEE-mee-ah deficiency in the number of red blood cells oligo / cyt / hemia few / cell / blood condition pancytopenia PAN-SAI-toh-PEE-nee-ah deficiency in all cellular components of the blood pan / cyto / penia all / cell / deficiency phagocytosis FAY-goh-sai-TOH-sis process in which phagocytes (a type of white blood cell) destroy (or eat) foreign microorganisms or cell debris phago / cyt / osis eat / cell / condition poikilocytosis POI-kih-loh-sai-TOH-sis condition characterized by red blood cells in a variety of shapes poikilo / cyt / osis various / cell / condition polycythemia PAW-lee-sih-THEE-mee-ah excess of red blood cells poly / cyt / hemia many / cell / blood conditionreticulocyte

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