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HLTH 354: CHAPTER 12 THE URINARY AND MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS WORD ROOT EXAMPLES NOTES WORD PARTS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM glomerulus (plural: glomeruli) glomerul/o glomerulopathy, glomerulonephritis Glomerulus comes from a Latin word "little ball" and refers to the little balls of blood vessels inside the kidney. These serve as the primary place for filtering the blood to form urine. kidney nephr/o ren/o nephrology, nephritis, renal failure Kidneys perform the necessary task of filtering the blood—at a rate of 200 quarts per day. renal pelvis pyel/o pyelonephritis, pyelitis Pyelo is a root meaning "pelvis." There are 2 things that the pelvis can apply to: the skeletal pelvis, renal pelvis urine ur/o urin/o urology, hematuria Healthy urine is completely sterile and contains ammonia molecules. The ancient Romans to use urine in two ways: to wash clothes and to whiten teeth stone lith/o Lithiasis Lithotripsy Kidney stones aren’t “stones”; instead, they are accumulations of mineral salts and calcium. bladder cyst/o vesic/o cystotomy, cystitis, vesiculotomy, vesiculitis When completely full, the urinary bladder is roughly the size of a softball and can hold about 18 ounces of liquid. urethra urethr/o urethrostenosis, urethritis The length of the urethra differs depending on sex. The average male urethra is about 8 inches long, and the average female urethra is 1.5 to 2 inches long. ureter ureter/o ureterocele, ureterectomy Ureters are the thick-walled tubes about 10 inches in length that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. opening meat/o meatoscope, meatal stenosis Meatus comes from a word meaning "to go through"; it means "opening." The English word permeate comes from the same term. WORD PARTS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM penis balan/o balanorrhea, balanitis The root balano comes from a Greek word meaning "acorn"; this is an allusion to the shape of the tip of the penis. epididymis epididym/o epididymotomy, epididymectomy The epididymis, an oblong organ that sits on top of each testicle, is the place where sperm cells complete their final level of development and are stored. testicle orch/o orchi/o orchid/o test/o testicul/o orchitis, orchiopexy, anorchidism, testitis You likely noticed right away that one of the main roots for testicle is similar to the word orchid. prostate prostat/o prostatitis, prostatomegaly The prostate is an organ in the male reproductive tract that surrounds the urethra. The name prostate breaks down into pro (before) and state (stand) and literally translates to mean "the one that stands before or in front of." sperm sperm/o spermat/o sperm/i aspermia, spermicide, spermatocele Sperm (from Greek, for "seed") is produced in the testicles. It takes roughly 10 weeks to produce a single sperm. Sperm can sit in the epididymis for as long as 2 weeks before being ejaculated.SUBJECTIVE Patient History, Problems, Complaints URINARY TRACT Term Definition Word Analysis anuria: an-YUR-ee-ah lack of urination an/ ur/ia: no/urine/ condition cystalgia: sis-TAL-jah pain in the bladder cyst/algia: bladder/pain cystodynia: SIS-toh-DAI-nee-ah pain in the bladder cysto/dynia: bladder/pain cystoplegia: SIS-toh-PLEE-jah bladder paralysis cysto/plegia: bladder/paralysis dysuria: dis-YUR-ee-ah painful urination dys/ur/ia: bad/urine/condition enuresis: EN-yur-EE-sis involuntary urination from Greek, for "to urinate" hematuria: HEE-mah-TUR-ee-ah bloody urination hemat /ur/ia: blood/urine/condition incontinence: in-CON-tih-nentz inability to control urination in/con/tinence: not/together/hold nephralgia: neh-FRAL-jah pain in the kidney nephr/algia: kidney/pain nocturia: nok-TUR-ee-ah nighttime urination noct/ur/ia: night/urine/condition nocturnal enuresis: nok-TIR-nal EN-yur-EE-sis nighttime involuntary urination nocturnal enuresis nighttime involuntary urination oliguria: aw-lih-GYIR-ee-ah low urine output olig/ur/ia: few/urine/condition polydipsia: PAW-lee-DIP-see-ah excessive thirst poly/dips/ia: many/thirst/condition polyuria: PAW-lee-YUR-ee-ah excessive urination poly/ ur/ia: many/urine/condition pyuria: pai-YUR-ee-ah pus in the urine py/ur /ia: pus/urine/condition ureteralgia: yur-EE-ter-AL-jah pain in the ureter ureter/algia: ureter/pain urethrodynia: yoo-REE-throh-DAI-nee-ah pain in the urethra urethro/dynia: urethra/pain urethrorrhea: yoo-REE-throh-REE-ah discharge from the urethra urethro/rrhea: urethra/discharge urocyanosis: YUR-oh-SAI-ah-NOH-sis blue urine uro/cyan/osis: urine/blue/condition urodynia: YUR-oh-DAI-nee-ah painful urination uro/dynia: urine/pain MALE GENITALIA Term Definition Word Analysis balanorrhea: BAL-ah-noh-REE-ah discharge from the penis balano/rrhea: penis/discharge orchialgia: OR-kee-AL-jah testicle pain orchi/algia: testicle /pain orchidoptosis: OR-kih-dop-TOH-sis downward displacement of a testicle orchid/ptosis: testicle/drooping condition orchiodynia: OR-kee-oh-DIH-nee-ah testicle pain orchio /dynia: testicle/pain priapism: PREE-ap-izm persistent and painful erection from ancient Greek, minor fertility god named Priapus, who is always shown with a large and permanently erect penisOBJECTIVE Observation and Discovery URINARY TRACT Term Definition Word Analysis albuminuria al-byoo-mih-NUR-ee-ah protein in the urine albumin / ur / ia protein / urine / condition azotemia AZ-oh-TEE-mee-ah excess nitrogen in the blood azot / emia nitrogen / blood condition azotorrhea AZ-oh-toh-REE-ah excessive discharge of nitrogen azoto / rrhea nitrogen / discharge azoturia AZ-oh-TUR-ee-ah excess nitrogen in the urine azot / ur / ia nitrogen / urine / condition cystorrhexis SIS-toh-REK-sis rupture of the bladder cysto / rrhexis bladder / rupture dipsogenic DIP-soh-JIN-ik creating thirst dipso / genic thirst / creating glucosuria GLOO-koh-shur-EE-ah sugar in the urine glucos / ur / ia sugar / urine / condition glycosuria GLAI-koh-shur-EE-ah sugar in the urine glycos / ur / ia sugar / urine / condition hyperkalemia HAI-per-kah-LEE-mee-ah excessive potassium in the blood hyper / kal / emia over / potassium / blood condition hyponatremia HAI-poh-nah-TREE-mee-ah low sodium in the blood hypo / natr / emia under / sodium / blood condition ketolysis kee-TAW-lih-sis breakdown of ketones keto / lysis ketones / loose ketonuria kee-toh-NUR-ee-ah presence of ketones in the urine keton / ur / ia ketones / urine / condition meatal stenosis mee-AY-tal

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