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WORD UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM adenoid o adenoid ROOT tonsil nose larynx voice box pharynx throat trachea windpipe tonsill o nas o Latin nose rhin o Greek nose laryng o pharyng o trache o air or lungs lungs lobe pneum o pneumat o pneumon o pulmon o lob o septum plural septa sept o septectomy septoplasty sinus sin o sinus o sinusitis sinusotomy HLTH 354 CHAPTER 10 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM EXAMPLE NOTES adenoidectomy adenoiditis tonsillectomy tonsillitis nasogastric tube nasendoscope rhinorrhea rhinoplasty laryngospasm laryngitis pharyngitis pharyngostenosis tracheotomy tracheostomy pneumomelanosis pneumatology pneumonia pulmonologist pulmonary lobectomy lobotomy bronchiostenosis bronchiolitis bronchiolectasis adenoid is formed by adding a suffix to the root adeno which means gland aden o oid resembling a gland The word tonsil comes from a Latin word meaning almond Rhinoceros is the combination of rhino and ceros horn which means horn nose Remember the letter g is soft when followed by an i and hard when followed by an o The pharynx is the pathway used by both food and air From the Greek word for rough because of the bumpy ridges that line the outside of the trachea Septum comes from a Latin word meaning partition or dividing structure and can refer to any wall dividing two cavities From a Latin word meaning hollow or cavity sinus refers generally to any hollow area specifically those in bones These roots can mean either lung or air pulmon o means only lung pneum o can mean both lung as in pneumonia and air A lobe is a well defined portion of any organ The main organs that have lobes are the lungs brain and liver The main branches from the trachea into each lung The root bronchiole is actually formed by adding a diminutive suffix to another root bronch o iole little bronchus which is a smaller subdivision of the bronchial tubes Alveolus comes from a Latin word meaning hollow or cavity bronchus bronch o bronchi o bronchoscope bronchiole bronchiol o alveolus air sac alveol o alveolitis alveolar LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM sternum stern o rib cost o sternocostal sternotomy costectomy costophrenic The sternum comes to a point at the bottom called the xiphoid process The term comes from the Greek word xiphos Ribs are sometimes grouped into three categories true false and floating 1 chest pleura thorac o pector o also pectus steth o pleur o diaphragm phren o thoracic pectoralgia pectus excavatum stethoscope pleuritis pleurectomy phrenospasm phrenoplegia PROCESS OF RESPIRATION oxygen ox o hypoxia hypoxemia breathing spir o pnea spirometry sleep apnea carbon dioxide capn o Greek for smoke carb o Latin for coal hypercapnia hypocarbia The root pector o can also stand as a word by itself The pleura is a membrane surrounding the lungs In addition to the diaphragm phren o can also refer to the brain as in the term schizophrenia Hypoxia refers to a lack of oxygen in tissue cells Spir o also occurs in other words Perspire translates as to breathe through Conspire translates as to breathe together no doubt coming from the idea that people who are conspiring can be thought of as being huddled together and breathing the same air Expire also contains the spir o root and means to breathe out It was originally written as exspire but the letter s was dropped because x is made up of two k sounds To test this say expire and exspire They are rarely pronounced differently One of the treatments for hyperventilation is to have the person breathe into a paper bag A person who is hyperventilating has hypocarbia and thus needs to increase the carbon dioxide in his or her respiratory system 2 SUBJECTIVE Patient History Problems Complaints BREATHING PROCESS Term apnea AP nee ah eupnea YOOP nee ah tachypnea ta KIP nee ah bradypnea brad ip NEE ah hypopnea hai POP nee ah hyperpnea hai perp NEE ah dyspnea disp NEE ah orthopnea or thop NEE ah hyperventilation hai per ven ti LAY shun hypoventilation hai po ven ti LAY shun UPPER RESPIRATORY dysphonia dis FON ia epistaxis ep ee STAKS is Definition cessation of breathing good normal breathing rapid breathing slow breathing shallow breathing heavy breathing difficulty breathing able to breathe only in an upright position overbreathing condition of having too much air flowing into out of the lungs leads to hypocapnia underbreathing condition of having too little air flowing into out of the lungs leads to hypercapnia bad voice condition hoarseness a nosebleed Word Analysis a pnea not breathing eu pnea good breathing tachy pnea fast breathing brady pnea slow breathing hypo pnea under breathing hyper pnea over breathing dys pnea bad breathing ortho pnea straight breathing hyper ventil ation over breathing process hypo ventil ation under breathing process dys phonia bad sound voice Greek word epistazo to drip out or upon 3 excessive blood flow from the nose nosebleed runny nose involuntary contraction of the bronchus involuntary contraction of the diaphragm hiccups pain in the pleura pain in the pleura chest pain rhino rrhagia nose excessive bleeding rhino rrhea nose discharge broncho spasm bronchus involuntary contraction phreno spasm diaphragm involuntary contraction pleur algia pleura pain pleuro dynia pleura pain thorac algia chest pain discharge from the bronchi coughing or spitting material out of the lungs coughing up blood mucus discharged from the lungs by coughing broncho rrhea bronchus discharge ex pector ation out chest process hemo ptysis blood cough Latin for spit rhinorrhagia rai no RAY jah rhinorrhea rai no REE yah LOWER RESPIRATORY bronchospasm BRON ko spaz um phrenospasm fre no SPAZ um pleuralgia plur AL jah pleurodynia plur oh DIH nee ah thoracalgia thor a KAL jah DISCHARGES AND SECRETIONS bronchorrhea bron koh REE ah expectoration eks pec tor A shun hemoptysis heem op TIS is sputum SPYOO tum OBJECTIVE Observation and Discovery PHYSICAL FINDINGS AND EXAMINATION METHODS Term auscultation ah skul TAY shun Definition a health care professional using a stethoscope to listen to a patient s chest Word Analysis from the Latin word ausculto meaning to listen cyanosis sai an O sis pectoriloquy pek tor IH low kwee pectus carinatum PEK tus car ee NAH tum pectus excavatum PEK tus eks cuh VAH tum a bluish color in the skin caused by insufficient oxygen speaking from the chest used as a means of finding masses in the lung A health professional listening to a patient s chest asks the patient to whisper a word The word will be audible in areas where fluid or a mass is present

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