Unformatted text preview:

1 HLTH 354: CHAPTER 11 THE GASTROINTESTINEAL SYSTEM Word Root Example Notes UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM mouth or/o stomat/o oral, stomatosis Most people tend to chew on the side of the mouth that corresponds to the hand with which they write. gums gingiv/o gingivitis, gingivostomatitis This root comes from the Latin word for gums. tooth dent/o odont/o dentist, odontalgia The enamel on the outside of the tooth is the hardest thing in the human body. togue gloss/o lingu/o glossopathy, hypoglossal, sublingual The strongest muscle in the human body, relative to its size stomach gastr/o gastritis, gastropexy It must produce a new layer of mucus every 2 weeks or it will digest itself esophagus esophag/o esophageal, esophagitis The esophagus is a tube that connects your mouth to your stomach. LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT intestines enter/o gastroenterology, dysentery The average adult has over 20 feet of intestines. duodenum duoden/o gastroduodenoscope, duodenectomy The small intestine is divided into three sections:duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The duodenum is the first of the three sections jejunum jejun/o jejunotomy, jejunitis the second of the small intestine’s three sections ileum Ile/o ileotomy, ileitis third of the small intestine’s sections. colon (large intestine) col/o colon/o colorectal carcinoma, colitis, colonoscopy, colonectomy The colon starts at the bottom of the abdomen (remember, that’s where the ileum ends) and is divided into three main sections: the ascending (going up) colon, the transverse (going across) colon, and the descending (going down) colon. Sigmoid colon sigmoid/o sigmoidoscope At the end of the colon, before the rectum begins.. Rectum rect/o rectoplasty, rectitis Rectum is Latin for "straight" and refers to the final portion of the colon before it arrives at the anus. Anus an/o anoplasty, anal fistula The anus is the sphincter or muscle at the end of the intestines that allows for the passage of feces. Anus and rectum proct/o proctology, proctitis The root ano refers specifically to the anus and the root recto refers specifically to the rectum, but procto refers to both the anus and rectum.2 WORD ROOT EXAMPLE NOTES SUPPORTING STRUCTURES/DIGESTIVE ORGANS saliva sial/o sialoadenitis The average human produces between 1 and 3 pints of saliva a day. bile (gall) bil/i chol/e biligenesis, cholelith Substance produced in the liver that is required for the body to digest food. abdomen abdomin/o celi/o lapar/o abdominocentesis, celiopathy, laparoscope Laparoscopic surgery is a way to perform surgery on the abdomen without making lengthy incisions. bladder cyst/o cholecystogram, cholecystectomy Once bile is produced in the liver, some of it is stored in the gallbladder, a small organ about the size of a pear that’s located under the liver. duct doch/o choledocholithiasis Bile leaves the liver through numerous bile ducts. liver hepat/o hepatic/o hepatitis, hepaticotomy The liver, which is located on the right side of your abdomen just below your rib cage, is the largest organ in the human body (except the skin); it can filter more than a liter of blood every minute. pancreas pancreat/o pancreatitis, pancreatolith The term pancreas comes from two Greek words: pan (all) and kreas (flesh). peritoneum peritone/o peritoneotomy The peritoneum is a membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the abdominal organs.3 SUBJECTIVE Patient History, Problems, Complaints UPPER GASTRO TRACT Term Definition Word Analysis aerodontalgia ER-oh-dawn-TAL-jah tooth pain caused by exposure to air aer / odont / algia air / tooth / pain aphagia a-FAY-jah inability to eat a / phagia no / eat dentalgia den-TAL-jah tooth pain dent / algia tooth / pain dyspepsia dis-PEP-see-ah bad digestion dys / peps / ia bad / digestion / condition esophagalgia eh-SAWF-ah-GAL-jah pain in the esophagus esophag / algia esophagus / pain eupepsia yoo-PEP-see-ah good digestion eu / peps / ia good / digestion / condition gastralgia gas-TRAL-jah stomach pain gastr / algia stomach / pain gastrodynia GAS-troh-DIH-nee-ah stomach pain gastro / dynia stomach / pain gingivalgia JIN-jih-VAL-jah gum pain gingiv / algia gum / pain gingivostomatitis JIN-jih-voh-STOH-mah-TAI-tis inflammation of the mouth and gums gingivo / stomat / itis gum / mouth / inflammation hematemesis HEM-at-EM-eh-sis vomiting blood hemat / emesis blood / vomiting hyperemesis HAI-per-EM-eh-sis excessive vomiting hyper / emesis over / vomiting odontalgia OH-dawn-TAL-jah tooth pain odont / algia tooth/ pain odontodynia oh-DAWN-toh-DAI-nee-ah tooth pain odonto / dynia tooth / pain stomatitis STOH-mah-TAI-tis inflammation of the mouth stomat / itis mouth/ inflammation stomatodynia stoh-MAT-oh-DAI-nee-ah mouth pain stomato / dynia mouth / pain LOWER GASTRO TRACT Term Definition Word Analysis constipation KAWN-stih-PAY-shun difficulty passing feces from Latin, for "to crowd together" diarrhea DAI-ah-REE-ah passing of fluid or unformed feces dia / rrhea through / discharge dysentery DIS-en-TER-ee another name for diarrhea dys / enter / y bad / intestine / condition enterodynia EN-ter-oh-DIH-nee-ah pain in the intestines entero / dynia intestine / pain hemorrhoid HEM-oh-ROID inflammation of the veins surrounding the anus from a Greek word referring to veins likely to discharge blood rectalgia rek-TAL-jah rectal pain rect / algia rectum / pain4 SUPPORTING ORGANS Term Definition Word Analysis cholecystalgia KOH-lay-sis-TAL-jah pain in the gallbladder chole / cyst / algia bile / bladder / pain jaundice JAWN-dis yellowing of skin, tissue, and fluids caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the blood from French, meaning "yellow" icterus IK-ter-us another name for jaundice from Greek, for "jaundice" sialorrhea SAI-ah-loh-REE-ah excessive salivation sialo / rrhea saliva / excessive discharge OBJECTIVE Observation and Discovery UPPER GASTRO TRACT Term Definition Word Analysis gastromalacia GAS-troh-mah-LAY-shah softening of the stomach gastro / malacia stomach / softening gastroparesis GAS-troh-par-EE-sis partial paralysis of the stomach gastro / paresis stomach / partial paralysis gingivitis JIN-jih-VAI-tis inflammation of the gums gingiv / itis gum / inflammation gingivoglossitis JIN-jih-voh-glaw-SAI-tis inflammation of the gums and tongue gingivo / gloss / itis gum / tongue / inflammation glossoplegia GLAW-soh-PLEE-jah

View Full Document


Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view THE GASTROINTESTINEAL SYSTEM and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view THE GASTROINTESTINEAL SYSTEM 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?