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EDHD425Chuchu LiStudy Guide for Final Exam1. Language Theories: a. Structuralism vs. Functionalism/ Competence vs. Performance i. Structuralism: the form of utterance (I want milk subj.+verb+obj)ii. Functionalism: the situation in which an utterance occurs (I want milk- followed by an event that milk is provided)iii. Competence: Individual’s knowledge of a language (I am there yesterday)iv. Performance: the actual instances of language use (I am there yesterday confusion) b. Learning Theory/Behaviorism (empiricism)/ Linguistic perspective (nativism). The viewpoint/assumption of empiricism and nativism, the supporting evidence and problems of themi. Learning theory:1. Empiricists: believe that language is simply a learned behavior 2. Focus on observable language behaviors 3. Learned through conditioning (reinforcement) 4. Receptive vocab: classical conditioning (hot-feeling pain)5. Productive vocab: operant conditioning (say milk get milk)6. Supporting evidence: a. Language development as a result of training not maturationb. An environment that is responsive to young children’s utterance may foster children’s language development7. Problems: a. Adults don’t say things like “I breaked the glass”b. Multiple correction may still fail to correct mistakec. Directionality of imitation ii. Linguistic perspective1. Born with ability to learn any language2. Chomsky: a. Language acquisition device (LAD): a biologically based, innate module for picking up language needs only to be triggered by verbal input from the environmentb. Universal grammar: all the basic rules that underlie all human language 3. Nativists: believe that critical aspects of language are innate (simple learning or imitation)4. Supporting evidence: a. Similar patterns of development across many language b. Overregularizationc. Lack of negative evidenced. Critical period for language development5. Problems: a. Cross language differencesb. Some aspects of grammar take foreverc. Differing language environments have effects on development c. Interactionist approaches i. Emphasizes the interaction between the environment, biological, cognitivedevelopment ii. Piagetiii. PDPiv. Social 2. Biologya. Lateralization. i. The left hemisphere is logic, major responsibilities of language processing, analysis, mathii. Right hemisphere is art, emotion, creativity, thinking, semantics iii. Split brain patient: right can see horse, draw with left (saddle) b. Different types of aphasia, the corresponding problematic brain area, and the symptomsi. Brocas aphasia: controls language production, you need to speak1. Good comprehension2. Difficulty with pronunciation3. Telegraphic speech4. Receptive but not productive ii. Wernickes aphasia: responsible for interpreting language, you need to understand1. Fluent speech2. Nonsense words3. Poor comprehensioniii. Arcuate fasciculus (conduction aphasia)1. Unable to repeat a word2. Poor comprehension3. Transfer information between broca’s and wernickes area 3. Individual Differencesa. How do children differ in early words, segmentation, early sentences, and stability of stylei. Expressive children:1. Early lexicons include more pronoun and function words2. More personal social expression3. Unclear transition from single word to phrase stage4. Slower but steadier rate of acquisitionii. Referential children:1. Early lexicons are dominated by words for objects2. Sudden spurt of new words near the 50 level word3. Faster rate of acquisition4. More common in childreniii. Segmentation:1. Semantic cues2. Lexical knowledge3. Phonotactics4. Acoustic cues5. Word stress: the initiation stressed words are segmented faster thanmedial stressed words (CORidor vs. confusion)iv. Stability of style 1. Analytic style: predict advanced grammatical development2. Holistic style: not quite ready with future grammatical developmentb. Factors that contribute to above differences, being able to give your own examplesi. Child factors (style, sensitive to sound, memory, willingness to talk) ii. Input factors, SES, Linguistic factorsc. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation  goals i. Differentiate between different motivation ii. Intrinsic: the source of motivation comes from oneself (cook great meal) iii. Extrinsic: the source of motivation comes from environment (cute guy, Spain) d. Being able to set a goal based on the four principles: Specific/Moderately difficult/Attainable/Match the motivationi. Specific ii. Moderately difficultiii. Attainableiv. Match the motivation4. Bilingualisma. The definition or description of different types of bilinguals i. L1: first languageii. L2: second languageiii. L1=L2 balanced bilingualiv. Unbalanced, second language learners (L1 D)v. Second language learners: additive bilingualism- gain a second language while retaining a first, L2 treated as an assetvi. Heritage Speakers: subtractive bilingualism- lose fluency of a first language when acquiring a second one b. The benefits of being a bilingual—better cognitive control ability i. Better cognitive control ability ii. Better ability to inhibit unrelated information- accomplish task more easilyc. Critical period theory (including the evidence that support this) vs. the benefit of late L2 learnersi. There was a neurologically based critical period, ending around puberty, complete mastery of a language is no longer possible (before puberty) ii. Evidence 1: neurological evidence1. FMRI: measure oxygenation are determine which neural areas are activated 2. Monolingual Spanish Speakers3. Brain activity: early Spanish speakers learner- more similar to native Spanish speakers iii. Evidence 2: semantic network 1. Parallel bilingual: interdependent lexicon similar size2. Early bilingual: independent lexicon, smaller for L23. Late bilingual: mixed lexicon, smaller for L2d. Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis and the examples of language transfer i. First language literacy skills helps second language literacy acquisitionii. Hypothesis: once the child develops reading skills in the native language they are able to transfer to second language, Spanish is highly correlated with English phonological awareness and reading skills iii. Positive transfer: two language share the same feature (word order)iv. Negative transfer: the feature is different in two language, you knowledge about first language interferes in second language (John is eating an apple subj, verb, obj) e. Bilingual and English-only

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UMD EDHD 425 - Study Guide for Final Exam

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